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Pragmatics of Word Order Flexibility

Thus three domains must be distinguished in understanding order variation: syntactic, cognitive and pragmatic. The works in this volume explore various aspects of this assertion.

Author : Doris L. Payne

Release : 1992-07-01

Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN : 902728590X

File Size : 90.92 MB

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For some time the assumption has been widely held that for a majority of the world's languages, one can identify a “basic” order of subject and object relative to the verb, and that when combined with other facts of the language, the “basic” order constitutes a useful way of typologizing languages. New debate has arisen over varying definitions of “basic”, with investigators encountering languages where branding a particular order of grammatical relations as basic yielded no particular insightfulness. This work asserts that explanatory factors behind word order variation go beyond the syntactic and are to be found in studies of how the mind grammaticizes forms, processes information, and speech act theory considerations of speakers' attempts to get their hearers to build one, rather than another, mental representation of incoming information. Thus three domains must be distinguished in understanding order variation: syntactic, cognitive and pragmatic. The works in this volume explore various aspects of this assertion.

Word Order in Discourse

This volume brings together a collection of 18 papers dealing with the problem of word order variation in discourse.

Author : Pamela Downing

Release : 1995-01-01

Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN : 902722921X

File Size : 52.68 MB

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This volume brings together a collection of 18 papers dealing with the problem of word order variation in discourse. Word order variation has often been treated as an essentially unpredictable phenomenon, a matter of selecting randomly one of the set of possible orders generated by the grammar. However, as the papers in this collection show, word order variation is not random, but rather governed by principles which can be subjected to scientific investigation and are common to all languages.The papers in this volume discuss word order variation in a diverse collection of languages and from a number of perspectives, including experimental and quantitative text based studies. A number of papers address the problem of deciding which order is 'basic' among the alternatives. The volume will be of interest to typologists, to other linguists interested in problems of word order variation, and to those interested in discourse syntax.

Word Order

A one-stop resource on the current developments in word order research, this comprehensive survey provides an up-to-date, critical overview of this widely debated topic, exploring and evaluating research carried out in four major ...

Author : Jae Jung Song

Release : 2012-03-29

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 0521872146

File Size : 32.17 MB

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Word order is one of the major properties on which languages are compared and its study is fundamental to linguistics. This comprehensive survey provides an up-to-date, critical overview of this widely debated topic, exploring and evaluating word order research carried out in four major theoretical frameworks - linguistic typology, generative grammar, optimality theory and processing-based theories. It is the first book to bring these theoretical approaches together in one place and is therefore a one-stop resource covering the current developments in word order research. It explains word order patterns in different languages and at different structural levels and critically evaluates (and where possible, compares) the theoretical assumptions and word order principles used in the different approaches. Also highlighted are issues and problems that require further investigation or remain unresolved. This book will be invaluable to those investigating word order, and researchers and students in syntax, linguistic theory and typology.

Basic Word Order (RLE Linguistics B: Grammar)

Basic. Constituent. Order. While there has beenagreat dealofwork donein
linguistics concerning problems of order in general, ... Mallinson and
Blakeassertthatword order facts can be accounted for in terms of three general
principles: (3)x ...

Author : Russell S Tomlin

Release : 2014-02-03

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1317933796

File Size : 58.77 MB

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This book examines the frequencies of the six possible basic word (or constituent) orders (SOV, SVO, VSO, VOS, OSV, OVS) provides a typologically grounded explanation for those frequencies in terms of three independent, functional principles of linguistic organization. From a database of nearly 1,000 languages and their basic constituent orders, a sample of 400 languages was produced that is statistically representative of both the genetic and areal distributions of the world’s languages. This sample reveals the following relative frequencies (in order from high to low) of basic constituent order types: (1) SOV and SVO, (2) VSO, (3) VOS and OVS, (4) OSV. It is argued that these relative frequencies can be explained to be the result of the possible interactions of three fundamental functional principles of linguistic organization. Principle 1, the thematic information principle, specifies that initial position is the cross-linguistically favoured position for clause-level thematic information. Principle 2, the verb-object bonding principle, describes the cross-linguistic tendency for a transitive verb and its object to form a more tightly integrated unit, syntactically and semantically, than does a transitive verb and its subject. Principle 3, the animated principle, describes the cross-linguistic tendency for semantic arguments which are either more animate or more agentive to occur earlier in the clause. Each principle is motivated independently of the others, drawing on cross-linguistic data from more than 80 genetically and typologically diverse languages. Given these three independently motivated functional principles, it is argued that the relative frequency of basic constituent order types is due to the tendency for the three principles to be maximally realized in the world’s languages. SOV and SVO languages are typologically most frequent because such basic orders reflect all three principles. The remaining orders occur less frequently because they reflect fewer of the principles. The 1,000-language database and the genetic and areal classification frames are published as appendices to the volume.

On Emphasis and Word Order in Hungarian

This collection of essays and reviews represents the most significant and comprehensive writing on Shakespeare's A Comedy of Errors.

Author : Ferenc Kiefer

Release : 1997-07-29

Publisher : Psychology Press

ISBN : 9780700708765

File Size : 72.86 MB

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This collection of essays and reviews represents the most significant and comprehensive writing on Shakespeare's A Comedy of Errors. Miola's edited work also features a comprehensive critical history, coupled with a full bibliography and photographs of major productions of the play from around the world. In the collection, there are five previously unpublished essays. The topics covered in these new essays are women in the play, the play's debt to contemporary theater, its critical and performance histories in Germany and Japan, the metrical variety of the play, and the distinctly modern perspective on the play as containing dark and disturbing elements. To compliment these new essays, the collection features significant scholarship and commentary on The Comedy of Errors that is published in obscure and difficulty accessible journals, newspapers, and other sources. This collection brings together these essays for the first time.

Word Order, Agreement, and Pronominalization in Standard and Palestinian Arabic

The question that any generative study concerned with the sentential structure of
Arabic must address is : which of these word orders is the basic word order ?
Recall that the remaining two word orders , SOV and OSV are totally missing in
PA ...

Author : Mohammad A. Mohammad

Release : 2000

Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN : 9789027236876

File Size : 64.57 MB

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The two related issues of word order, and subject-verb agreement have occupied center stage in the study of Arabic syntax since the time of Sibawayhi in the eighth century. This book is a contribution to both of these areas. It is grounded within the generative grammar framework in one of its most recent versions, namely Minimalism, as expounded in Chomsky (1995). In this volume, a detailed description is given of word order options in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Palestinian Arabic (PA). It is shown that, perhaps surprisingly, the two varieties allow almost the same range of word orders. The important question of whether Arabic has a VP is addressed: the author argues extensively that Arabic has a VP category. The evidence derives from examining superiority effects, ECP effects, binding, variable interpretations, etc. Also discussed is the content of [Spec, TP] in VSO sentences. It is argued that the position is occupied by an expletive pronoun. The author defends the Expletive Hypothesis which states that in VSO sentences the expletive may take part in checking some features of the verb. A typology of the expletive pronoun in Modern Standard Arabic, Palestinian Arabic, Lebanese Arabic, and Moroccan Arabic is provided. A particularly interesting problem involving pronominal co-reference is the following: if the subject is the antecedent of a pronominal clitic, word order is free; if a pronominal is cliticized onto the subject, then the antecedent must precede. An account that derives these restrictions without recourse to linear order is proposed.

Word Order in English Sentences

An accessible reference guide for sentence structure and word order in English, ideal for students of English, editors, writers and anyone with an interest in grammar fundamentals.

Author : Phil Williams

Release : 2016-02-25

Publisher :

ISBN : 9780993180842

File Size : 43.16 MB

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An accessible reference guide for sentence structure and word order in English, ideal for students of English, editors, writers and anyone with an interest in grammar fundamentals.

Word Order in Brazilian Portuguese

... PartP, for Participle Phrase. Since this phrase is above VP, where the subject
originates, it needs a Spec position for the subject to go through, in order not to
violate the MLC. 64 Basic order in declaratives 4.1 Adverbs and compound verbs
.

Author : Gláucia V. Silva

Release : 2001-01-01

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter

ISBN : 3110869551

File Size : 86.6 MB

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This book is a new contribution to syntactic theory. The reader will find a clear overview of the central facts concerning Brazilian Portuguese (BP) word order, as well as a comparison to the facts in other Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, and French). In relating other Romance languages to BP, the book shows that BP word order has a number of interesting restrictions that set this language clearly apart from the other Romance languages. This volume provides accounts for declaratives and interrogatives found not only in BP but also in the other Romance languages discussed, taking into consideration parametric differences among the languages studied.

The Pragmatics of Word Order

Identification of basic constituent order Langacker (1977) states: In discussing "
basic" word [constituent] order, three related but separate notions must be clearly
distinguished: "most neutral word order", "most common word order", and ...

Author : Doris L. Payne

Release : 1990-01-01

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter

ISBN : 3110847280

File Size : 27.67 MB

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The series is a platform for contributions of all kinds to this rapidly developing field. General problems are studied from the perspective of individual languages, language families, language groups, or language samples. Conclusions are the result of a deepened study of empirical data. Special emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose analysis may shed new light on long-standing problems in general linguistics.

Pashto Phonology

The book provides a detailed analysis of the relationship between syllable structure and word order, a long-standing correlation in typological linguistics which has been previously described as an implicational universal.

Author : Kamal Muhammad Khan

Release : 2020-04

Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN : 9781527546080

File Size : 49.6 MB

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The book provides a detailed analysis of the relationship between syllable structure and word order, a long-standing correlation in typological linguistics which has been previously described as an implicational universal. It presents data from Pashto (an Eastern-Iranian language spoken mainly in Pakistan and Afghanistan), and explores consonant clusters and the basic word order of the language. It begins by introducing the Pashto language, before going on to highlight the word order typology and language universals, followed by a detailed analysis of its syllable structure and basic word order in light of the Optimality Theoretic (OT) framework. The study then takes up the case of the basic word order as a weak foundation for such a typological correlation and challenges this view of structural implications by comparing Pashto (an SOV language) with English (an SVO language). Finally, the book concludes by emphasising the global implications of the study, and offers future recommendations for further research on this language.

Word Order in Old Italian

However, one could adopt a Kaynian framework where OV is derived by
movement of the object higher than the verb, and VO can either be the basic
word order or any order where the verb has simply raised higher than the object.
In this case ...

Author : Cecilia Poletto

Release : 2014-02

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0199660247

File Size : 86.19 MB

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This book offers an integrated description of all aspects of word order in Old Italian, looking at the left periphery not only of the sentence, but also of the verbal phrase and determiner phrase. It makes important contributions to the study of medieval Italian, Romance historical linguistics, and diachronic syntactic change more generally.

Studies in Brythonic Word Order

Word order and word order typology has been an area of increased interest in
linguistics since the 1960's. This is partly explained by the logarithmic effect of
new discoveries in this field: the more we learn about the causes and effects of
basic ...

Author : James Fife

Release : 1991-11-30

Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN : 9027277877

File Size : 45.59 MB

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While Celtic languages are nominally VSO in basic word order, the languages of the Brythonic branch have exhibited striking synchronic and historical variations from the prototype. This volume comprises the very latest research in word order in Welsh, reton and Cornish from nine of the leading scholars in the field. The studies deal with historical, typological and descriptive issues from several approaches (including philological, functional and government and binding). The scope ranges over all the Brythonic languages, as well as the entire diachronic spectrum from the proto-language up to the most recent colloquial trends. The volume provides the expert with a collection of state-of-the-art research and the non-specialist with a comprehensive survey of the problems and debates in a language grouping fraught with intricate questions of word order and word order change.

Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax

This revised edition of Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax is a valuable comparative analysis of the inter-lingual differences between English and Spanish.

Author : Sam Hill

Release : 2000

Publisher : University Press of America

ISBN : 9780761817192

File Size : 85.17 MB

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This revised edition of Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax is a valuable comparative analysis of the inter-lingual differences between English and Spanish. All thirty-six sections of the book have been revised in order to cover a broad scope of dialects with as much clarity as possible. The exercises, many of which are framed bilingually, facilitate the development of the student's skills, through translation from one language into the other, or through restating grammatical constructions in one language. Bilingual Grammar of English-Spanish Syntax is an important tool for anyone teaching or working with Spanish and English.

The Free Word Order Phenomenon

The free word order phenomenon: Its diversity and syntactic sources The articles
in this volume deal with the “free ... that “non-standard word orders” in other
languages such as German and Japanese are derived from the basic word order
by ...

Author : Joachim Sabel

Release : 2005-01-01

Publisher : Walter de Gruyter

ISBN : 311019726X

File Size : 59.68 MB

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This book deals with the syntax of the free word order phenomenon (scrambling) in a wide range of languages - in particular, German, Japanese, Kannada, Malayalam, Serbo-Croatian, Tagalog, Tongan, and Turkish - in some of which the phenomenon was previously unstudied. In the past, the syntax of free word order phenomena has been studied intensively with respect to its A- and A'-movement properties and in connection with its semantic (undoing) effects. The different articles in this volume offer new ways of analyzing free word order under (i) minimalist assumptions, (ii) concerning the typology of scrambling languages, (iii) with respect to the question of how it is acquired by children, (iv) in connection with its relatedness to information structural factors, and (v) with respect to its consequences for a highly elaborated sentence structure of the IP/VP domain. The articles that focus mainly on the emprical aspects of free word order phenomena deal with the properties and proper analysis of rightwards scrambling in Turkish, with the A-/A'-nature and triggers for VSO-VOS alternations in Tongan, as well as with left-branch extractions and NP-Split in Slavic and its consequences for a typology of scrambling languages. The articles that focus on theoretical aspects of scrambling deal with questions concerning the motivatation of a derivation with scrambling in a free word order language, such as whether scrambling has to be analyzed as topicalization or focus movement. Or assuming that scrambling is feature-driven, how the technical details of this analysis are implemented in the grammar to avoid unwarranted derivations, for example, derivations with string-vacuous scrambling. A further important question that is addressed is when scrambling is acquired in the development of the grammar, and what the consequences are for the timing of the acquisition of A- and A'-movement properties. This volume will be most relevant to researchers and advanced students interested in generative syntax, as well as typologists working on German, Japanese, Slavic, Turkish, Dravidian and Austronesian languages. We regret that due to a layout error the title of Miyagawa's article on "EPP and semantically vacuous scrambling" is misrepresented in the printed version of the book. You can download the article with the corrected title here.

Basic Word Order and Sentence Types in Kari'ña

BASIC WORD ORDER AND SENTECE TYPES IN KARI ' NA Andrés Romero -
Figueroa Universidad de Oriente , Cumaná , Venezuela L . INTRODUCTION The
purpose of this research is to study the basic syntactic order in Kari na through
the ...

Author : Andrés Romero-Figueroa

Release : 2000

Publisher :

ISBN :

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Word Order Rules

Author : Anna Siewierska

Release : 1988

Publisher : Routledge Kegan & Paul

ISBN :

File Size : 75.48 MB

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Word Order Variation in the Akkadian of Byblos

The sender and provenance of letter 101 is not clear since the first 1 The
statistically most frequent , hence dominant , word order in a language generally
reflects its basic word order , see Hawkins ( 1983 , 13-14 ) . Exceptions are
discussed by ...

Author : Agustinus Gianto

Release : 1990

Publisher : Gregorian Biblical BookShop

ISBN : 9788876535765

File Size : 68.82 MB

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This book originated from a Ph. D. thesis which was submitted to the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University, in 1987. Though the general format remains pratically the same, many parts of the original work have been fully rewritten. The term word order used in this work refers to the relative order among the functional constituents of a sentence known as subject, verb, object. There has not been any systematic investigation of the word order variation in the Akkadian of Byblos.

Linguistic Typology

References to basic word order were made in Chapter 1 in relation to the types of
language universals and sampling procedures. Basic word order at the clausal
level consists of the three major constituents, S, O and V. There are six logical ...

Author : Jae Jung Song

Release : 2014-09-15

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1317883438

File Size : 49.12 MB

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Language typology is the study of the structural similarities between languages regardless of their history, to establish a classification or typology of languages. It is a core topic of historical linguistics and is studied on all traditional linguistics degree courses. In recent years there has been increased interest the subject and it is an area we have been looking to commission a book in. Jae Jung Song proposes to introduce the undergraduate reader to the subject, with discussion of topics which include - what is language typology and why is it studied; word order; language sampling; relative clauses; diachronic typology; and applications of language typology. There will also be discussion of the most prominent areas of research in the subject and readers will be able to review data selected from a wide range of languages to see how languages work and how differently they behave.