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Calcium and Contractility

Calcium and Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction It is generally accepted that
calcium ions mobilized to activate the contractile apparatus in vascular smooth
muscle may originate from two different sources. The biphasic nature of the ...

Author : A. K. Grover

Release : 2012-12-06

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1461251729

File Size : 72.54 MB

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In organizing the present volume, we had two intentions. The first was to present the best current understanding of the mechanisms of calcium mobilization during excitation contraction coupling of smooth muscle at a level suited to the needs of professionals interested in smooth muscle pharmacology and pathophysiology, while remaining appreciable by graduate and medical students. The second intention was to provide in sight into present-day controversies, as well as the latest ad vances achieved by researchers in this field. Thus, we have thor oughly discussed both the techniques and the concepts derived from their application. An attempt has also been made here to answer a number of profoundly important questions: What are the mechanisms and agents responsible for the control of contractility? What are the accompanying changes in the state of intracellular calcium ions and the mechanisms responsible for them? How does the regula tion of contractility occur directly at the level of the actomyosin activity? What role do gap junctions play in cell-to-cell coupling? What are the roles of cholinergic, adrenergic, peptidergic, and nonadrenergic noncholinergic interactions in calcium mobiliza tion in smooth muscle? What changes occur in hypertension? The impact of these recent techniques on future research is also reflected upon.

Calcium in Muscle Contraction

This book highlights the most recent progress as well as providing a historial perspective of the field.

Author : Johann C. Rüegg

Release : 2012-12-06

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 3642775608

File Size : 73.81 MB

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Recent years have witnessed an explosion of knowledge lea- ding to a molecular understanding of the mechanisms of ac- tion of calcium on excitation and contraction coupling and its role in the regulation of contractility. This book highlights the most recent progress as well as providing a historial perspective of the field. It presents a concise and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge regar- ding calcium channels and regulatory proteins as well as in- tracellular calcium handling and the mechanisms underlying the activation of contractile proteins. It also describes how these basic mechanisms have been adapted in various types of muscle, especially in cardiac and smooth muscle.

Calcium Physiology

200 V. Calcium and Contractile Proteins 206 VI. Homeostasis of Intracellular
Calcium 210 VII. Resting Potential and Action Potential 211 VIII. Calcium and
Muscle Contraction 214 IX. The Coupling of Excitation and Energy Synthesis .

Author : C. L. Comar

Release : 2014-05-12

Publisher : Elsevier

ISBN : 148325982X

File Size : 62.9 MB

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Mineral Metabolism, Volume III: Calcium Physiology focuses on the processes, reactions, and approaches involved in calcium metabolism and study of bones. The selection first underscores the measurements and models of skeletal metabolism and advances in the physical biology of bone and other hard tissues, including measurements and concepts, composition and structure of bone minerals, and dynamic studies of bone minerals. The text then takes a look at calcium and striated muscle and renal excretion of alkaline earths. Topics include physicochemical state of alkaline earth cations in plasma and urine, effects of drugs, renal diseases, calcium and contractile proteins, resting potential and action potential, calcium and muscle contraction, and coupling of excitation and energy synthesis. The book examines the aspects of intestinal absorption of calcium, with special reference to vitamin D, as well as the physiological mechanism of the intestinal absorption of calcium; effect of other nutritional and physiological factors on calcium absorption; and structure of the intestinal epithelial cell. The selection is a dependable source material for physiologists and readers interested to pursue research on calcium physiology.

Essential Cardiology

Contractility. Arnold. M. Katz,. MD,. DMed. (Hon). INTRODUCTION The heart's
pumping action is made possible by ... These interactions, which are activated by
calcium, are regulated by tropomyosin and troponins C, I, and T that are present ...

Author : Clive Rosendorff

Release : 2007-11-05

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1592599184

File Size : 87.75 MB

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A panel of leading researchers and clinician-scientists distill from years of practical experience and recent scientific and clinical advances the essence of cardiology principles and techniques today. In this second edition, all of the original chapters have been extensively rewritten and two new chapters on acute coronary syndromes following the modern classification have been added: one on unstable angina pectoris and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and the other on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Compact yet comprehensive, Essential Cardiology: Principles and Practice, Second Edition offers today's busy cardiology and internal medicine practitioners, cardiology fellows, and medical residents rapid access to the latest ideas and techniques needed for today's gold standard diagnosis and management of cardiac patients.

Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Cardiac Contractile Force

Dihydropyridine receptors in muscle are voltage-dependent but most are not
functional calcium channels. Nature ... Sodium/calcium exchange and regulation
of cell calcium and contractility in cardiac muscle, with a note about vascular
smooth ...

Author : Donald Bers

Release : 2013-04-17

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9401715122

File Size : 37.21 MB

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The main aim of this monograph is to provide an overview of calcium regulation in cardiac muscle cells, particularly with respect to excitation-contraction coupling and the control of cardiac contractile force. It is my hope that this book will be useful to students of the cardiovascular system and muscle at all different levels and in different disciplines (such as physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology and pathophysiology). I also hope that it will find use for those studying developmental, comparative and disease processes as well as more integrative phenomenon. I kept several goals in mind in writing this monograph. First, it should be easily readable. Second, I chose to include numerous illustrations and tables to help integrate results from numerous investigators in practical formats and also present key figures from important papers. Thus, this monograph may serve as a resource of information for people working in the areas described herein. Third, the presentation is a very personal one, and I have necessarily drawn extensively on my personal experience in this field over the past 15 years. This, I think, helps maintain a certain continuity of thought from chapter to chapter. Fourth, I have made serious attempts to make each chapter "up to date", despite the breadth of topics covered. I have also tried to be equitable in choosing references while not intending to be comprehensive or exhaustive. Neither of these aims can be perfectly matched, and I apologize to the many investigators whose papers I have not cited, but should have.

Intracellular Calcium

Substance Atomic/ molecular weight ppm mM Calcium (Ca) 40.1 38.3 0.96
Magnesium (Mg) 24.3 4.5 1.85 Sodium (Na) 23.0 23.3 1.01 Potassium (K) ... The
addition too of a calcium salt to any of the above solutions will sustain contractility
.

Author : Anthony K. Campbell

Release : 2014-10-16

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

ISBN : 1118675533

File Size : 33.22 MB

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Thousands of imaginative scientists, over more than a century,have revealed the fascinating story of intracellular calcium,through a pathway of ingenious invention and discovery. Intracellular Calcium, the definitive book on this topic,reveals: The pathway of discovery and invention of intracellular calciumover more than 100 years. The evidence for intracellular calcium as a universal switch inall animal, plant, fungal and microbial cells How the components required for calcium signalling are namedand classified. The ingenious technology, which has been developed to studyintracellular calcium. How calcium is regulated inside cells and how it works totrigger an event. The role of intracellular calcium in disease, cell injury andcell death. How many drugs work through the calcium signalling system. How intracellular calcium is involved in the action of manynatural toxins. How the intracellular calcium signalling system has evolvedover 4000 million years, showing why it was crucial to the originof life. A key principle presented throughout the book is the molecularvariation upon which the intracellular calcium signalling systemdepends. This variation occurs within the same cell type andbetween cells with different functions, providing the invisiblematrix upon which Darwin and Wallace’s Natural Selectiondepends. Featuring more than 100 figures, including detailed chemicalstructures as well as pictures of key pioneers in the field, abibliography of more than 1500 references, as well asdetailed subject and organism indices, this definitive workprovides a unique source of scholarship for teachers andresearchers in the biomedical sciences and beyond.

Clinical Use of Calcium Channel Antagonist Drugs

Dependence on external calcium for the noradrenaline contractility of the
resistance vessels in spontaneously hypertensive and renal hypertensive rats, as
compared with normotensive controls. Acta Physiol Scand 1977;1:84-97. .
Adelstein ...

Author : Lionel H. Opie

Release : 2012-12-06

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1461308631

File Size : 26.99 MB

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Calcium antagonists are now regarded as the most important advance in cardiac drug therapy since the advent of beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Acting ba sically as vasodilators-though with many other com plex mechanisms especially in the case of the anti arrhythmic calcium antagonists, these agents have grown in importance to become among the therapeutic agents of first choice for angina pectoris and hyper tension. The major aim of the present book is to present the clinician with the information needed for the practical use of calcium antagonists. What do all the numerous and often conflicting trials say? Do these agents really work? If so, which agent and in what dose? How do the three front runners, verapamil, nifedipine and diltia zem compare in the efficacy and side-effects with each other? How do the new second generation agents, now entering the North American market, slot in and com pare with the three first-liners? When the gloss is taken away from the advertisements, what is really left? The strong clinical bias of the present book should be complimented by further reading of books slanted towards fundamentals. One of the most important and recent of these is that by Dr Winifred Nayler (Calcium Antagonists, Academic Press, 1988). That book should be basic for essential background knowledge in the area of calcium antagonists. The important basic contribu tions of Fleckenstein deserve emphasis.

Calcium Regulation of Cellular Function

4 Calcium Regulation of Smooth Muscle Contractile Proteins J. David Johnson
and Christopher H. Snyder Department of ... Ohio 43210-1218 An increase in
intracellular calcium (Ca) ion concentration is fundamental to the contraction of ...

Author :

Release : 2000-04-01

Publisher : Academic Press

ISBN : 9780080552736

File Size : 88.74 MB

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Volume 30 examines the prominent role of calcium as an intracellular second messenger. Leading investigators review a wide variety of studies on how calcium enters and moves through cells, how it interacts with its many binding proteins, and how calcium and its intracellular receptor, calmodulin, control vital cellular processes. Coverage includes a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which calcium bound to calmodulin regulates contractile proteins in smooth muscle cells. Close attention is given to the roles of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and phosphatases in synaptic signal transduction, protein synthesis, gene expression, programmed cell death, activation of T-lymphocytes, and control of cell division cycles. Other chapters discuss studies using genetically manipulable nonmammalian organisms to further proble the functions of calcium and calmodulin.

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction

PHARMACOLOGICAL CALCIUM SENSITIVITY MODULATION OF CARDIAC
MYOFILAMENTS J.C. Rüegg 1. INTRODUCTION As is well known , force
generation and contractility of the heart may be controlled by calcium by way of
regulating ...

Author : Fujihara Kagaku Zaidan

Release : 2003

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9780306478703

File Size : 82.9 MB

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This volume presents the proceedings of a muscle symposium, which was held as the Fourth Fujihara seminar on October 28 - November 1, 2002, at Hakone, Japan. This volume covers all fields of muscle biology, from molecules to humans. This book provides information about recent progress of muscle research as well as the problems that remain to be investigated. This volume will stimulate muscle investigators to design and perform novel experiments to clarify the mysteries in muscle contraction.

Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children E-Book

Caffeine, which releases calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, has little effect
on neonatal myocardial contractility. This suggests that extracellular, rather than
intracellular, calcium controls contractility in the neonatal myocardium, probably ...

Author : Etsuro K. Motoyama

Release : 2010-12-09

Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN : 032308169X

File Size : 58.19 MB

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Smith’s Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 8th Edition, edited by Drs. Peter J. Davis, Franklyn P. Cladis, and Etsuro K. Motoyama, delivers all the state-of-the-art guidance you need to provide optimal perioperative care for any type of pediatric surgery. Now in full color throughout, it also features online access to an image and video library, including ultrasound-guided pediatric regional blocks, review-style questions, plus the complete fully-searchable text at expertconsult.com. Get expert guidance from leading experts covering both basic science and clinical practice for every aspect of pediatric anesthesia. Incorporate the latest clinical guidelines and innovations in your practice. Find key facts fast with quick-reference appendices: drug dosages, growth curves, normal values for pulmonary function tests, and a listing of common and uncommon syndromes. Access the complete contents and illustrations online at expertconsult.com – fully searchable! Watch online video demonstrations of ultrasound-guided and conventional pediatric regional blocks, airway management, cardiac anesthesia, single-lung ventilation, neonatal surgery, and fetal surgery. Gain new insight into today’s hottest topics, including sleep-disordered breathing, cuffed endotracheal tubes, premedication, emergence agitation, postoperative vomiting, and new airway devices. Stay current with new chapters on ICU management, conjoined twins, and basic neonatal physiology, plus new coverage of pharmacology and monitoring techniques. Get outstanding visual guidance with full-color illustrations throughout the book.

Calcium Antagonists in the Treatment of Hypertension in Pregnancy

Increases in intracellular free calcium concentration ( [ Ca2 + ] ic ) are associated
with increased smooth muscle contractility ! Progesterone enhances calcium
uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum ( the intracellular calcium storage system )
 ...

Author : C. Romanini

Release : 1999-09-15

Publisher : CRC Press

ISBN : 9781850704683

File Size : 34.49 MB

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This is a clinician's and researcher's reference text on using calcium antagonists - calcium channel blockers - in the treatment of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. It contains twelve chapters covering experimental and clinical studies on the major calcium antagonists, their definition and classification and pharmacological profile, which drugs to use and when and which drugs to avoid. It also describes nifedipine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and covers nifedipine first-line treatment of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia along with chapters on second-line treatment and nifedipine blood cells and blood rheology. The book provides a comparison between two calcium antagonists in treating gestational hypertension and new categories to classify pre-eclampsia. Includes bibliographic references and index.

Cardiology E-Book

attachment period of the individual cross-bridge cycle are termed calcium
sensitization or increased calcium sensitivity. At the level of the myocyte,
contractile performance is regulated mainly by four different mechanisms.
Alteration in ...

Author : Michael H. Crawford

Release : 2009-09-18

Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN : 0723436444

File Size : 83.36 MB

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With your heavy case load, you can't afford to waste time searching for answers. Cardiology, 3rd Edition, by Drs. Crawford, DiMarco, and Paulus, offers you just the practical, problem-based guidance you need to quickly overcome any clinical challenge. 8 color-coded sections cover the 8 major clinical syndromes of cardiovascular disease—each section a virtual "mini textbook" on its topic! 40 new chapters keep you up to date with the latest advances in the field, while more than 2,000 lavish, high-quality illustrations, color photographs, tables, and ECGs capture clinical manifestations as they present in practice. It’s current, actionable information that you can put to work immediately for your patients! Offers a problem-based approach that integrates basic science, diagnostic investigations, and therapeutic management in one place for each cardiovascular disease so you can quickly find all of the actionable knowledge you need without flipping from one section to another. Features introductory bulleted highlights in each chapter that present the most pertinent information at a glance. Presents abundant algorithms to expedite clinical decision making. Includes more than 2,000 lavish, high-quality illustrations, color photographs, tables, and ECGs that capture clinical manifestations as they present in practice, and promote readability and retention. Includes 40 new chapters including Inherited Arrhythmia Syndromes, Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in CHD, Management of the Cyanotic Patient with CHD, Special Problems for the Cardiology Consultant Dealing with Bariatric/Gastric Bypass — and many more — that equip you with all of the latest knowledge. Presents "Special Problem" sections—many new to this edition—that provide practical advice on problems that can be difficult to treat.

Paediatric Cardiology

... they transition from fetal to post-natal life. the immature sarcomere and
contractile apparatus is relatively disorganised. ... a greater ratio of surface area
to volume.23 they are more reliant on transsarcolemmal fluxes of calcium for
contraction ...

Author : Robert H. Anderson

Release : 2009-09-25

Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN : 0702037354

File Size : 38.9 MB

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As patients live longer and need to be treated over the long term and the management of pediatric cardiology problems and congenital heart disease moves more into the mainstream, turn to Pediatric Cardiology for current clinical guidance. Trust Dr. Robert Anderson, godfather of cardiac morphology, to bring you coverage of potential cardiovascular anomalies, all potential diseases related to anomalies or developmental problems, and methods for management and treatment. New contributors from all over the world-including 70% new to this edition-present the latest challenges in the field and emphasize the adolescent and post-operative outcomes for management. Now, in full color, this leading reference offers you everything you need to treat and manage pediatric heart conditions. A comprehensive and exhaustive reference of fundamental and clinical aspects of heart disease in infancy and childhood. The contributors are well-known experts in the field and the editors are a world class group who have published extensively in the field. Emphasizes the treatment of corrected congenital heart disease for coverage of the clinical management of cardiac problems in the adolescent and young adult. Integrates development in chapters on lesions to make physiology clinically relevant for the specific cardiac lesions. Provides the latest clinical perspectives on neonate cardiac development management issues so you can offer the best long-term care. Presents the contributions of 70% new authors, from all over the world, in a consistent format to make referencing global perspectives quick and easy. Captures the nuances of the anatomical structure of lesions through full-color illustrations depicting morphologic, congenital, and surgically corrected examples for exceptional visual guidance.

Control and Management of Parturition

Calcium and uterine contractility Satish Batra Department of Obstetrics and
Gynecology , University Hospital , S - 221 85 ... Sweden ABSTRACT The source
of activator calcium for myometrial contractility could originate from the
accelerated ...

Author : Claude Sureau

Release : 1986

Publisher : John Libbey Eurotext

ISBN : 9780861960965

File Size : 23.6 MB

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Contains proceedings of the 23rd Baudelocque Symposium on Control & Management of Parturition, held in Paris, 1-3 May 1986. This text is in English & French.

Biology of the Uterus

The latter is followed by the declining rate of MLC phosphorylation and
contractile state of the myometrium. In vivo findings support the experimental data
: intracellular calcium concentration increases during contraction and decreases
when ...

Author : W. Jollie

Release : 2013-06-29

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1468455893

File Size : 27.75 MB

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Almost a quarter of a century has elapsed since Cellular Biology of the Uterus, the predecessor of the present volume, was planned. During that period, especially in the decade since the publication of the last edition of Biology of the Uterus, new information in the field has been so voluminous as to require major revisions of most of the chapters, the addition of several new chapters, and the collaboration of a second editor to facilitate the selection of appropriate experts as authors. As in prior editions, a balance has been struck between classical biology and modem biochemistry and biophysics. The inclusion of basic histological and embryo logical information provides a necessary, though often lacking, background for the protein chemist and molecular biologist and a bridge between the cell biologist and clinician. Thus, major practical problems in human reproduction, such as the genesis of endometrial carcinoma and the cause of the initiation of labor, may be approached on a firm scientific footing. The current edition deals primarily with the biology of the uterus itself (comparative and human) rather than placentation or pregnancy and thus is a synthesis of data derived from many techniques, both conventional and modem. As it is clearly beyond the competence of anyone scientist to prepare such a text on the basis of personal knowledge and experience, the aid of 22 distinguished scientists was enlisted.