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Creative Compounding in English

Accordingly, this book sets out to explore whether the semantics of metaphorical and metonymical noun_noun combinations can be systematically analysed within a theoretical framework, where systematicity pertains to regularities in both the ...

Author : Réka Benczes

Release : 2006-01-01

Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN : 9789027223739

File Size : 76.47 MB

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Metaphorical and metonymical compounds – novel and lexicalised ones alike – are remarkably abundant in language. Yet how can we be sure that when using an expression such as land fishing in order to speak about metal detecting, the referent will be immediately understood even if the hearer had not been previously familiar with the compound? Accordingly, this book sets out to explore whether the semantics of metaphorical and metonymical noun–noun combinations can be systematically analysed within a theoretical framework, where systematicity pertains to regularities in both the cognitive processes and the products of these processes, that is, the compounds themselves. Backed up by recent psycholinguistic evidence, the book convincingly demonstrates that such compounds are not semantically opaque as it has been formerly claimed: they can in fact be analysed and accounted for within a cognitive linguistic framework, by the combined application of metaphor, metonymy, blending, profile determinacy and schema theory; and represent the creative and associative word formation processes that we regularly apply in everyday language.

The Most Productive Word Formation Processes of the English Language

There are many different processes which lead to many different new words. But how can we form such new words? The sentenceThe drumper went on drumping until the drumperism lets him get drumpishconsists of four new or unknown words.

Author :

Release : 2007-02-25

Publisher : GRIN Verlag

ISBN : 3638618579

File Size : 29.89 MB

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Seminar paper from the year 2005 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The drumper went on drumping until the drumperism lets him get drumpish.Every time we can form new words with the help of word formation processes. There are many different processes which lead to many different new words. But how can we form such new words? The sentenceThe drumper went on drumping until the drumperism lets him get drumpishconsists of four new or unknown words. I formed these words with the help of a very productive word formation process, called 'derivation'. But what does 'productive' actually mean? Productive in the content of word formation processes means that these processes are responsible for the large part of neologisms (Kortmann 1999: 58). Productive may be also described as “a pattern, meaning that when occasion demands, the pattern may be used as a model for new items.” (Adams 1973: 197). Some processes are more productive than others. This research paper deals with the most productive word formation processes of the English language, namely 'derivation', which includes 'prefixation', 'suffixation' and 'infixation', 'compounding' and 'conversion'. The word formation process 'back formation' is regarded as a borderline case, i.e. it can be counted as a member of the most productive word formation processes or as a member of the so called secondary word formation processes (Schmid 2005: 87). Because of the relation between compounding, especially compound verbs, and back formation I will treat the process in this research paper too. After an introduction of some basic morphological terms as well as a definition of the term 'word formation' I will present the different stages a new formed word has to pass until it can be regarded as a member of the vocabulary because not every new formed word will become established. Afterwards, in the main part of this research paper, I will present these most productive word formation processes named above and give suitable examples in each case. Finally the term 'blocking' will be introduced, i.e. there are some words which just cannot be formed because there is already another word which carries the appropriate meaning and thus 'blocks' the new word (Schmid 2005: 117). In the conclusion I will give an outlook for the secondary word formation processes and a review of words which are included in the dictionary newly.

Productivity in English Word-formation

This book is a contribution to the study of morphological productivity, that is, the property of word-formation processes whereby new words are created to satisfy a naming need.

Author : Jesús Fernández Domínguez

Release : 2009

Publisher : Peter Lang

ISBN : 9783039118083

File Size : 63.73 MB

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This book is a contribution to the study of morphological productivity, that is, the property of word-formation processes whereby new words are created to satisfy a naming need. It presents an up-to-date picture of this phenomenon, characterising its major attributes and addressing neighbouring theoretical concepts like availability, profitability or lexicalisation. Links are also established between those notions and N+N compounding, a word-formation process regarded as very productive but traditionally overlooked in studies of this type. Unlike other productivity surveys, mostly directed at affixation, a corpus of N+N compounds is here compiled to which the mainstream models of productivity are applied. This allows to detect the pros and cons of those proposals and to propose a model of productivity. Two measures, Indicator of Profitability (π) and Trend of Profitability (Π), are introduced which can be applied across word-formation processes and are able to compute their productivity based on semantic categories.

Word Foration Types: Compounding

Compounding in History 2.1 Old English Just as the act of compounding takes
place in our everyday language today, one can observe that this type of word-
formation already occurred in Old English. People in England spoke and wrote
Old ...

Author : Eveline Podgorski

Release : 2008-12

Publisher : GRIN Verlag

ISBN : 3640230604

File Size : 40.63 MB

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Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Paderborn, course: Words in the Mind, 10 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: When analysing the internal processes in a human's mind in order to figure out how the processes of word-storage, word-production, and word-retrieving work, one of the features to be investigated is the act of word-formation. Next to the affixation and conversion, the creation of new words by combining two already existing words takes place in the human's mind - a process called "compounding." This paper deals with the act of compounding, the way new words are created by combination, its development in Old, Middle and Early Modern English, different features of standard compounds, and of other types of compounding. First of all, a brief introduction of the process of word-formation that has taken place in the English language over the last centuries, including Old English, Middle English and the Early Modern English will be given. This is followed by an overview of the general features of compounds themselves, including their structure, and a closer insight into nominal, adjectival, verbal and synthetic compounds. In chapter four, different types of compounding, like the neoclassical, the copulative and the exocentric compounds, which are somewhat exceptions to the normal compounds examined in chapter three, will be analysed and discussed regarding the standard compound structure. Concluding remarks will close this paper in chapter five.

Syntactic and Semantic Features of English Compounds

Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,3, University of Rostock, language: English, abstract: Compounding is a very productive word formation process.

Author : Rebecca Mahnkopf

Release : 2012-02-20

Publisher : GRIN Verlag

ISBN : 3656136084

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Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,3, University of Rostock, language: English, abstract: Compounding is a very productive word formation process. Productivity is “one of the defining features of human language which allows a native speaker to produce a large number of words and sentences according to the rules of a generative grammar” (Bauer 1991:84). In the English language there exists a vast number of words which were produced by compounding. In my term paper I am going to explain in detail what we understand by the term compound. I am going to look at semantic and syntactic characteristics and how compounds can be distinguished from syntagms which look very similar to them. In the further progress of my manuscript I am going to make a pilot study of the frequency of compounds in newspaper articles from different genres. I give answer to the question which genre seems to favour the use of compounds and which not. Of course my study is not going to be sufficient enough to present generally accepted results but after it prospects can be estimated.

A Dictionary of the English Language

Compounded a second 2. Turn aside ; deviate . time ; compounded with things
already com3. Repose ( for which it is a mild equivalent ) . posite ; triply , or more
than triply , compounded ; Decline . v . a . having a compound base or radical . 1.

Author : Samuel Johnson

Release : 1876

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 72.23 MB

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The Compounding of English Words

Chinese sugar - cane is the only proper English form , and a Frenchman would
never compound the French phrase . The cutting up of pocket - handkerchief into
its ultimate four elements is entirely contrary to the spirit of the English language ...

Author : Francis Horace Teall

Release : 1891

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 33.34 MB

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A Dictionary of the English Language; in which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals; and Illustrated in Their Different Significations ... Together with a History of the Language, and an English Grammar. By Samuel Johnson ... Whith Numerous Corrections, and with the Addition of Several Thousand Words ... by the Rev. H.J. Todd ... In Four Volumes. Vol. 1. [-4.]

Compounded a second time ; compounded with things already composite .
Decomposites of three metals , or more , are too long to inquire of , except there
be some compositions of them already observed . Bacon . DECOMPOSITION.pp
n . s .

Author :

Release : 1818

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 21.74 MB

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Compounds and Compounding

This controversial new book addresses the linguistic problems around compounds: words which sit on the borderline of syntax and morphology.

Author : Laurie Bauer

Release : 2017-10-31

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 1108416039

File Size : 30.20 MB

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This controversial new book addresses the linguistic problems around compounds: words which sit on the borderline of syntax and morphology.

Universal Dictionary of the English Language

Every Word in the English Language ... and an Exhaustive Encyclopaedia of All
the Arts and Sciences. boli , boy ... It was formerly held to make the person
compounding an accessory ; now it is punishable by fine and imprisonment . By 7
& 8 ...

Author :

Release : 1898

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 90.35 MB

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Universal Dictionary of the English Language

... the Orthography, Pronuciation, Meaning, Use, Origin and Development of
Every Word in the English Language... Robert ... It was formerly held to make the
person compounding an accessory ; now it is punishable by fine and
imprisonment .

Author : Robert Hunter

Release : 1900

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 30.55 MB

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The New and Complete Dictionary of the English Language

Composites ( s . in pbarmacy , Medicines compounded of Compliance ( s . from
comply ; The act of yielding , a dir . leveral ... the sum paid in compounding a
volving several parts . dent ; the act of compounding for any public tax or
Complicate ...

Author : John Ash

Release : 1795

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 34.15 MB

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The Modern World Dictionary of the English Language ...

Compounded it with dust , whereto ' tls kin " Shakesp . ... Figuratively : ( 1 ) To
combine , to mingle , or to associate together , to blend . ... and compounding all
the mat rials of fury , havoc , and desolatın ... Intransitive : I. Ordinary Language : *
1.

Author :

Release : 1896

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 84.63 MB

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The Study of Language

The English word superman is thought to be a loan-translation of the German U
̈bermensch, and the term loan-word itself is believed to ... This combining
process, technically known as compounding, is very common in languages such
as ...

Author : George Yule

Release : 2010-03-04

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 1139486764

File Size : 21.95 MB

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This best-selling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge in the subject, Yule presents information in short, bite-sized sections, introducing the major concepts in language study – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fourth edition has been revised and updated with twenty new sections, covering new accounts of language origins, the key properties of language, text messaging, kinship terms and more than twenty new word etymologies. To increase student engagement with the text, Yule has also included more than fifty new tasks, including thirty involving data analysis, enabling students to apply what they have learned. The online study guide offers students further resources when working on the tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.

A Dictionary of the English Language

COMPOSURE COMP COMP COMP COMPREHENSION Composure . s . of
destruction ; and compounding all the materials As man is a compound and
mixture of flesh , as of fury , havoc , and desolation , into one black cloud , well as
spirit .

Author : Robert Gordon Latham

Release : 1876

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 76.6 MB

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The Royal English dictionary: or, A treasury of the English language

nance established by the pope , by and with the compounded a second time ;
compounded of advice of the cardinals allembled in council , a thing already ...
the POSITE ) the act of compounding things , Aate of becoming less ; the quantity
 ...

Author : Daniel Fenning

Release : 1763

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 59.71 MB

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The Royal English Dictionary; or a Treasury of the English Language ... To which is prefixed a comprehensive Grammar of the English Tongue, etc

nance established by the pope , by and with the compounded a second time ;
compounded of advice of the cardinals ... the POSITE ) the act of compounding
things , state of becoming lefs ; the quantity lost by which were compounded
before ...

Author : Daniel Fenning

Release : 1763

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 22.27 MB

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The Royal English Dictionary; Or, A Treasury of the English Language ... To which is Prefixed, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Tongue ... The Third Edition Improved

... ( decrepitus , Lat . ) waftcompounded a second time ; compounded of ed , worn
out , and enfeebled by age ; in the a thing ... ( See DECOM To DECREʻPITATE ,
V , A. [ decreps , POSITE ] the act of compounding things , Lat . ) to calcine falts
on ...

Author : Daniel Fenning

Release : 1768

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 69.24 MB

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A Phonetic Shorthand and Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language

Isaac Pitman. COMMONS COMPRISAL Le Com ' plexness My jou a
compounded 9 liz iç , CONDUCTIBILITY 46 CONJUGATING 44 - Conductor. - 44
ه وی کی ان cy Com ' plexly Compli ' able Compliance Compli ' ant Com ' plicacy
Com ' plicate ...

Author : Isaac Pitman

Release : 1884

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 28.21 MB

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A General dictionary of the English language, etc. A facsimile of the edition of 1780

Compounded a second time . The last Aage of decay , the last effects of
DECOMPOSITION , " dě - kom - pa - zith " - old age . in . I. The act of
compounding a thing DECRESCENT , de - krés ' - sént . a . Growalready
compounded .

Author : Thomas SHERIDAN (M.A., Teacher of Elocution.)

Release : 1784

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 68.12 MB

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