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Elements of Evolutionary Genetics

This textbook shows readers how models of the genetic processes involved in evolution are made (including natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift in finite populations), and how the models are used to interpret classical ...

Author : Brian Charlesworth

Release : 2010-02-03

Publisher : Roberts

ISBN :

File Size : 77.44 MB

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This textbook shows readers how models of the genetic processes involved in evolution are made (including natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift in finite populations), and how the models are used to interpret classical and molecular genetic data. The material is intended for advanced level undergraduate courses in genetics and evolutionary biology, graduate students in evolutionary biology and human genetics, and researchers in related fields who wish to learn evolutionary genetics. The topics covered include genetic variation, DNA sequence variability and its measurement, the different types of natural selection and their effects (e.g. the maintenance of variation, directional selection, and adaptation), the interactions between selection and mutation or migration, the description and analysis of variation at multiple sites in the genome, genetic drift, and the effects of spatial structure.

Evolution: a Very Short Introduction

This text is about the central role of evolution in shaping the nature and diversity of the living world.

Author : Brian Charlesworth

Release : 2017-06-22

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0198804369

File Size : 43.67 MB

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Less than 450 years ago, all European scholars believed that the Earth was at the centre of a Universe that was at most a few million miles in extent, and that the planets, sun, and stars all rotated around this centre. Less than 250 years ago, they believed that the Universe was createdessentially in its present state about 6000 years ago. Even less than 150 years ago, the view that living species were the result of special creation by God was still dominant. The recognition by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace of the mechanism of evolution by natural selection hascompletely transformed our understanding of the living world, including our own origins. In this Very Short Introduction Brian and Deborah Charlesworth provide a clear and concise summary of the process of evolution by natural selection, and how natural selection gives rise to adaptations and eventually, over many generations, to new species. They introduce the central concepts of thefield of evolutionary biology, as they have developed since Darwin and Wallace on the subject, over 140 years ago, and discuss some of the remaining questions regarding processes. They highlight the wide range of evidence for evolution, and the importance of an evolutionary understanding forinstance in combating the rapid evolution of resistance by bacteria to antibiotics and of HIV to antiviral drugs. This reissue includes some key updates to the main text and a completely updated Further Reading section.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Evolutionary Genetics of Recombination and Segregation in Drosophila

"During meiosis, sexually reproducing eukaryotes exchange genetic material via recombination and segregate homologous chromosomes into gametes.

Author : Cara L.. Brand

Release : 2018

Publisher :

ISBN :

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"During meiosis, sexually reproducing eukaryotes exchange genetic material via recombination and segregate homologous chromosomes into gametes. Surprisingly, some genes involved in meiotic recombination and chromosomal segregation experience frequent evolutionary turnover. Growing evidence suggests selfish genetic elements? DNA entities that promote their own transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome? are a significant evolutionary force driving rapid molecular evolution at genes involved in an otherwise conserved biological process. The research in this dissertation integrates classical, molecular, and population genetics to study the evolution of recombination rates and biased chromosomal segregation in Drosophila. First, in Chapters 2-4, I focus on the evolution of recombination rates in Drosophila. In Chapter 2, I perform an evolutionary screen to identify a meiosis gene with a history of recurrent positive selection that might contribute to differences in the rate of crossing over between two closely related Drosophila species. I then use a transgenic approach to show this gene, mei-217/mei-218, mediates the species differences in the rate and patterning of crossing over. In Chapter 3, I use further transgenic analyses to functionally dissect mei-217/mei-218 to determine which gene regions control the species differences in crossing over. In Chapter 4, I explore the long-term molecular evolution of mei-217/mei-218 and find evidence for frequent positive selection during the phylogenetic history of Drosophila. I find that mei-217/mei-218 wildtype alleles of two additional Drosophila species have also functionally diverged in their control of crossing over. I speculate that recurrent bouts of adaptive functional evolution at mei-217/-218 might reflect a history of coevolution with selfish genetic elements. Next, in Chapter 5, I turn to the evolution of a meiotic drive system, Segregation Distorter, that causes biased segregation in Drosophila melanogaster. I use molecular and population genetic tools to investigate the age, geographic origins, and population dynamics of Segregation Distorter chromosomes. I find that despite its stable frequency, Segregation Distorter chromosomes experience frequent selective sweeps and replacement events."--Pages xi-xii.

Genes in Conflict

Covering all species from yeast to humans, this is the first book to tell the story of selfish genetic elements that act narrowly to advance their own replication at the expense of the larger organism.

Author : Austin BURT

Release : 2009-06-30

Publisher : Harvard University Press

ISBN : 0674029119

File Size : 65.89 MB

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Covering all species from yeast to humans, this is the first book to tell the story of selfish genetic elements that act narrowly to advance their own replication at the expense of the larger organism.

Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution

The papers in this volume therefore represent state-of-the-art thinking, by leading world experts in the field, on the evolutionary significance of transposable elements.

Author : J. F. McDonald

Release : 2000-07-31

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9780792363064

File Size : 62.53 MB

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Once considered merely `selfish' or `parasitic' DNA, transposable elements are today recognized as being of major biological significance. Not only are these elements a major source of mutation, they have contributed both directly and indirectly to the evolution of genome structure and function. On October 8-10, 1999, 100 molecular biologists and evolutionists representing 11 countries met on the campus of The University of Georgia in Athens for the inaugural Georgia Genetics Symposium. The topics of presentations ranged from how the elements themselves have evolved to the impact transposable elements have had on the evolution of their host genomes. The papers in this volume therefore represent state-of-the-art thinking, by leading world experts in the field, on the evolutionary significance of transposable elements.

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Recombination and Selection. Sex and Selfish Genetic Elements References
Agren, J.A., Wang, W., Koenig, D., et al., 2014. Mating system shifts and
transposable element evolution in the plant genus Capsella. BMC Genomics 15,
602. Ajioka ...

Author :

Release : 2016-04-14

Publisher : Academic Press

ISBN : 0128004266

File Size : 86.62 MB

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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

Evolutionary Genetics

Computational Modeling of the Evolution of Gene Regulatory Networks As
described in Stern (Ch. 15 of this volume), ... The genotype is thus defined as an
N x N matrix, W, whose elements, w,,, denote the effect on gene i of the product of
 ...

Author : Charles W. Fox

Release : 2006-04-27

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 9780199775040

File Size : 69.46 MB

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Charles Fox and Jason Wolf have brought together leading researchers to produce a cutting-edge primer introducing readers to the major concepts in modern evolutionary genetics. This book spans the continuum of scale, from studies of DNA sequence evolution through proteins and development to multivariate phenotypic evolution, and the continuum of time, from ancient events that lead to current species diversity to the rapid evolution seen over relatively short time scales in experimental evolution studies. Chapters are accessible to an audience lacking extensive background in evolutionaryy genetics but also current and in-depth enough to be of value to established researchers in evolution biology.

Origin and Evolution of New Gene Functions

In the second phase of new gene evolution, conventional models of new gene evolution, and systematical experimental pursuit of the origin and evolution of new gene functions did not appear for example by gene duplication, held that the muta ...

Author : Manyuan Long

Release : 2003-07-31

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9781402013966

File Size : 84.44 MB

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Although interest in evolutionary novelties can be that these different mechanisms cooperate in the mak traced back to the time of Darwin, the appreciation ing of new genes. In the second phase of new gene evolution, conventional models of new gene evolution, and systematical experimental pursuit of the origin and evolution of new gene functions did not appear for example by gene duplication, held that the muta until the early years of last decade. Since the 1970s, tions fixed in the early stages of the new genes are Susumu Ohno, Walter Gilbert, and others from the assumed to be neutral or nearly neutral. However, it area of evolutionary genetics have made pioneer ef appears that the force of Darwinian positive selection has been detectably strong from the outset in avail forts to elaborate possibilities for major biological mechanisms, for example, gene duplication and exon able population genetic studies of young genes created through the process of exon recombination. This may shuffling, by which new gene functions could arise. However, the problem of new gene evolution did not account for a common phenomenon in phylogenetic catch significant attention among biologists generally analyses of genes with changed functions: the early even recently. One of the reasons was the lack of ex stages of such genes are usually associated with accel perimental or observational systems for investigating erated substitution rates. Nonetheless, a more general factual details of the 'birth' process of new genes.

Genetics and the Origin of Species

Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific ...

Author : Theodosius Dobzhansky

Release : 1982

Publisher : Columbia University Press

ISBN : 9780231054751

File Size : 60.22 MB

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Featuring an introduction by Stephen Jay Gould, "Genetics and the Origin of Species" presents the first edition of Dobzhansky's groundbreaking and now classic inquiry into what has emerged as the most important single area of scientific inquiry in the twentieth century: biological theory of evolution. Genetics and the Origin of Species went through three editions (1937, 1941, and 1951) in which the importance accorded natural selection changed radically.

The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems

Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:41–47. ... Charalambous M, Butlin RK, Hewitt
GM (1994) Genetic variation in male song and female song preference in the ...
Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D (2010) Elements of Evolutionary Genetics.

Author : David Shuker

Release : 2014-07-31

Publisher : OUP Oxford

ISBN : 0191030880

File Size : 36.58 MB

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Insects display a staggering diversity of mating and social behaviours. Studying these systems provides insights into a wide range of evolutionary and behavioural questions, such as the evolution of sex, sexual selection, sexual conflict, and parental care. This edited volume provides an authoritative update of the landmark book in the field, The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems (Thornhill and Alcock, 1983), which had such a huge impact in shaping adaptationist approaches to the study of animal behaviour and influencing the study of the evolution of reproductive behaviour far beyond the taxonomic remit of insects. This accessible new volume brings the empirical and conceptual scope of the original book fully up to date, incorporating the wealth of new knowledge and research of the last 30 years. It explores the evolution of complex forms of sex determination in insects, and the role of sexual selection in shaping the evolution of mating systems. Selection arising via male contest competition and female choice (both before and after copulation) are discussed, as are the roles of parasites and pathogens in mediating the strength of sexual selection, and the role that parental care plays in successful reproduction. The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems is suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in insect mating systems or behaviour from an evolutionary, genetical, physiological, or ecological perspective. Due to its interdisciplinary and concept-driven approach, it will also be of relevance and use to a broad audience of evolutionary biologists.

Evolutionary Genetics

The Evolution of Sex and Recombination DONAL A. HICKEY 16.1 . ... evolution of
the earliest stages might have been the result of direct selection on DNA repair
genes and mobile genetic elements , while the later stages , e.g. , the evolution ...

Author : Rama S. Singh

Release : 2000-03-28

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 9780521571234

File Size : 45.67 MB

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This book brings out the central role of evolutionary genetics in all aspects of its connection to evolutionary biology.

Plant Molecular Evolution

This book brings together contributions from evolutionary biologists, systematists, developmental geneticists, biochemists, and others working on diverse aspects of plant biology whose work touches to varying degrees on plant molecular ...

Author : J.J. Doyle

Release : 2012-12-06

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9401142211

File Size : 63.15 MB

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Plant molecular biology has produced an ever-increasing flood of data about genes and genomes. Evolutionary biology and systematics provides the context for synthesizing this information. This book brings together contributions from evolutionary biologists, systematists, developmental geneticists, biochemists, and others working on diverse aspects of plant biology whose work touches to varying degrees on plant molecular evolution. The book is organized in three parts, the first of which introduces broad topics in evolutionary biology and summarizes advances in plant molecular phylogenetics, with emphasis on model plant systems. The second segment presents a series of case studies of gene family evolution, while the third gives overviews of the evolution of important plant processes such as disease resistance, nodulation, hybridization, transposable elements and genome evolution, and polyploidy.

Evolution

James A. Shapiro proposes an important new paradigm for understanding biological evolution, the core organizing principle of biology.

Author : James A. Shapiro

Release : 2011-06-08

Publisher : Pearson Education

ISBN : 0132780992

File Size : 61.97 MB

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James A. Shapiro proposes an important new paradigm for understanding biological evolution, the core organizing principle of biology. Shapiro introduces crucial new molecular evidence that tests the conventional scientific view of evolution based on the neo-Darwinian synthesis, shows why this view is inadequate to today's evidence, and presents a compelling alternative view of the evolutionary process that reflects the shift in life sciences towards a more information- and systems-based approach in Evolution: A View from the 21st Century. Shapiro integrates advances in symbiogenesis, epigenetics, and saltationism into a unified approach that views evolutionary change as an active cell process, regulated epigenetically and capable of making rapid large changes by horizontal DNA transfer, inter-specific hybridization, whole genome doubling, symbiogenesis, or massive genome restructuring. Evolution marshals extensive evidence in support of a fundamental reinterpretation of evolutionary processes, including more than 1,100 references to the scientific literature. Shapiro's work will generate extensive discussion throughout the biological community, and may significantly change your own thinking about how life has evolved. It also has major implications for evolutionary computation, information science, and the growing synthesis of the physical and biological sciences.

Evolution and Impact of Transposable Elements

During the last 50 years, the perception oftransposable elements (TEs) has changed considerably from selfish DNA to sequences that may contribute significantly to genome function and evolution.

Author : Pierre Capy

Release : 1998-01-31

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9780792346906

File Size : 30.9 MB

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During the last 50 years, the perception oftransposable elements (TEs) has changed considerably from selfish DNA to sequences that may contribute significantly to genome function and evolution. The recent increased interest in TEs is based on the realization that they are a major genetic component (at least 10--20%) of all organisms and a major contributor to the mutation process. It is currently estimated that 70--80% of spontaneous mutations are the result of TE-mediated insertions, deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Thus, it seems at least plausible that TEs may playa significant role in the adaptation and evolution of natural populations and species. The ubiquity of TEs suggests that they are an old component of genomes which have been vertically transmitted through generations over evolutionary time. However, detailed analyses carried out over the last 20 years have revealed several unusual features of TE evolution: (i) TEs can be horizontally transferred between species; (ii) TE evolutionary rates can be dramatically increased by specific inactivation processes, such as the RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation) mechanism in fungi; (iii) TEs can influence the regulation of other TEs by insertion or deletion; (iv) different classes of TEs in even distantly related species can be remarkably similar in both structure and function.

From DNA to Diversity

In this landmark work, the author team led by Dr. Sean Carroll presents the general principles of the genetic basis of morphological change through a synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics and embryology.

Author : Sean B. Carroll

Release : 2013-04-25

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

ISBN : 1118685202

File Size : 28.59 MB

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In this landmark work, the author team led by Dr. Sean Carroll presents the general principles of the genetic basis of morphological change through a synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics and embryology. In this extensively revised second edition, the authors delve into the latest discoveries, incorporating new coverage of comparative genomics, molecular evolution of regulatory proteins and elements, and microevolution of animal development. An accessible text, focusing on the most well-known genes, developmental processes and taxa. Builds logically from developmental genetics and regulatory mechanisms to evolution at different genetic morphological levels. Adds major insights from recent genome studies, new evo-devo biology research findings, and a new chapter on models of variation and divergence among closely related species. Provides in-depth focus on key concepts through well-developed case studies. Features clear, 4-color illustrations and photographs, chapter summaries, references and a glossary. Presents the research of Dr. Carroll, a pioneer in the field and the past president of the Society for Developmental Biology.

Mobile Genetic Elements

Key Words: Retrotransposon; molecular marker; biodiversity; marker-assisted
breeding; molecular evolution; genetic fingerprinting; pedigree analysis;
polymorphism detection; trans- posable element. 1. Introduction Markers, entities
which are ...

Author : Wolfgang J. Miller

Release : 2004

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1592597556

File Size : 38.60 MB

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Transposable elements (TEs)-DNA sequences that are capable of moving from one chromosome location to another-are found in all living organisms. They have been increasingly investigated in a wide spectrum of species, including bacteria, plants, fungi, and animals. In Mobile Genetic Elements: Protocols and Genomic Applications, leading experts describe in step-by-step detail their most productive transposon-based methods and strategies for studying genome structure, function, and evolution. These readily reproducible techniques cover a broad range, including mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene silencing, and molecular systematics. Among the highlights are a series of DNA hybridization methods for analyzing the distribution and dynamics of mobile DNA at the hosts' genomic level, techniques for studying LTR retrotransposons in heterologous host systems, and mutagenesis protocols for investigating gene functions in a broad range of organisms. Additional methods deal with highly informative sets of polymorphic markers, RNAi technology in gene silencing, and applications during transgenesis. The protocols presented follow the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, each one offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principle behind the technique, lists of equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. State-of-the-art and highly practical, Mobile Genetic Elements: Protocols and Genomic Applications offers investigators powerful genetic tools for dissecting the function of a specific gene, elaborating on the mechanisms leading to genetic change and diversity, and studying the evolutionary impact of mobile DNA on the biology and evolution of organisms.

Gene and Protein Evolution

Volff J-N (ed): Gene and Protein Evolution. Genome Dyn. Basel, Karger, 2007,
vol 3, pp 163–174 Modulation of Host Genes by Mammalian Transposable
Elements W. Makalowskia, Y. Todab aInstitute of Molecular Evolutionary
Genetics and ...

Author : Jean-Nicolas Volff

Release : 2007-01-01

Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN : 3805583400

File Size : 27.89 MB

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"Our way of understanding evolution has changed completely with the era of genomics, particularly since the emergence of comparative genomics, a discipline allowing the analysis of complete genomes and biological processes over vast periods of time. In this volume, internationally recognized experts present and discuss an update of the evolutionary processes at the onset of organismal diversification and complexity, and review the mechanisms leading to the acquisition of new traits and functions. Different levels of evolution are considered, from internal modules in genes and proteins to interactomes and biological networks, with integration of the influence of both the genomic environment and the ecological context. Particular emphasis will be given to the origin of novel genes and gene functions as well as to the evolutionary impact of the duplication of genetic information, with several chapters devoted to transposable elements. Providing an excellent update on gene and protein evolution, this book will be appreciated by researchers in biology and medicine, biology teachers and anyone interested in evolution and genomics."--Publisher's description.

Human Evolutionary Genetics

... polyadenylation — reduced mRNA stability and reduced protein The different
elements of the gene are not to scale, and in particular the introns illustrated here
are small relative to the exons (see Table 2. i for typical sizes of these elements).

Author : Mark Jobling

Release : 2013-06-25

Publisher : Garland Science

ISBN : 1136844147

File Size : 51.46 MB

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Human Evolutionary Genetics is a groundbreaking text which for the first time brings together molecular genetics and genomics to the study of the origins and movements of human populations. Starting with an overview of molecular genomics for the non-specialist (which can be a useful review for those with a more genetic background), the book shows how data from the post-genomic era can be used to examine human origins and the human colonization of the planet, richly illustrated with genetic trees and global maps. For the first time in a textbook, the authors outline how genetic data and the understanding of our origins which emerges, can be applied to contemporary population analyses, including genealogies, forensics and medicine.

Genetics

Other chapters treat transmission genetics, molecular genetics and evolutionary genetics and provide an understanding of the basic process of gene transmission, mutation, expression and regulation.

Author : Daniel L. Hartl

Release : 2011-08-05

Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN : 1449626106

File Size : 49.50 MB

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The Eighth Edition of Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes provides a clear, balanced, and comprehensive introduction to genetics and genomics at the college level. Expanding upon the key elements that have made this text a success, Hartl has included updates throughout, as well as a new chapter dedicated to genetic evolution. He continues to treat transmission genetics, molecular genetics, and evolutionary genetics as fully integrated subjects and provide students with an unprecedented understanding of the basic process of gene transmission, mutation, expression, and regulation. New chapter openers include a new section highlighting scientific competencies, while end-of-chapter Guide to Problem-Solving sections demonstrate the concepts needed to efficiently solve problems and understand the reasoning behind the correct answer. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.