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Fossil Hydrocarbons

This book discusses the origins and compositions of fossil hydrocarbons and shows how the"heavies"can be chemically transformed into environmentally clean gas, liquid transportation fuels, and an almost unlimited range of petrochemicals.

Author : Norbert Berkowitz

Release : 1997-09-09

Publisher : Elsevier

ISBN : 9780080531885

File Size : 68.47 MB

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Fossil hydrocarbons form a continuous series whose"heavy"members--heavy oils, bitumens, oil shale kerogens, and coal--are important sources of conventional lighter fuels. These hydrocarbons are much more abundant and easier to extract than natural gas and oil. This book discusses the origins and compositions of fossil hydrocarbons and shows how the"heavies"can be chemically transformed into environmentally clean gas, liquid transportation fuels, and an almost unlimited range of petrochemicals. Dr. Berkowitz explodes the entrenched dichotomy between"petroleum hydrocarbons"and coal that has shaped popular perceptions of energy, showing that it is feasible to develop new technologies that capitalize on the availability of"synthetic"natural gas and light oils. Fossil Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Technology is a comprehensive treatment of fossil hydrocarbons, covering the source materials, biosources, metamorphic histories, geochemistry, classification, and molecular structure. It discusses the use of fossil hydrocarbons as a viable energy source in our future, detailing the preparation, processing and conversion technologies, as well as discussing the environmental issues that arise from production, processing, and use of various fossil hydrocarbons. Approaches various fossil hydrocarbons as chemically related entities, thus dispelling the unwarranted distinctions between crude oils and coal Explains how heavy fossil hydrocarbons can be processed by much the same methods as crude oils for good economic and environmental purpose Illustrates how bitumens, oil shales, and coals are convertible into synthetic natural gas and oils Shows a path for reasonable energy self-sufficiency, through conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into synthetic natural gas and oils Augments each chapter with end-of-chapter notes and a detailed bibliography Provides more than 200 useful tables, schematics, and figures

Hydrogen Energy System

Commercially available hydrogen production methods such as steam reforming
of natural gas , partial oxidation of heavy oil , coal gasification , coal
carbonization , steam iron process that are based on fossil hydrocarbons and
methods in the ...

Author : Yuda Yürüm

Release : 1995-07-31

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9780792336013

File Size : 76.82 MB

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In the near future the world will need to convert to a suitable, clean energy supply: one that will meet the demands of an increasing population while giving few environmental problems. One such possible supply is hydrogen. Hydrogen Energy System describes the present status of hydrogen as an energy supply, as well as its prospect in the years to come. It covers the transition to hydrogen-based, sustainable energy systems, the technology of hydrogen production, its storage and transport, and current and future hydrogen utilisation. Economic analyses of the hydrogen energy system, together with case studies, are also presented.

Solid Fuels and Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids: Thermal Characterization and Analysis

Fossil. Fuels: Origins. and. Characterization. Methods. 2.1. Precursors. and.
Formation. of. Fossil. Hydrocarbons. Literature on the organic geochemistry of
coals is quite wide ranging and the limitation of space would not allow an
exhaustive ...

Author : Rafael Kandiyoti

Release : 2006-04-06

Publisher : Elsevier

ISBN : 9780080463605

File Size : 84.12 MB

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The first strand involves a critical overview of the design of experimental methods used for examining the thermal behaviour of solid fuels [pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification], while the second will emphasise chemical structures and molecular mass distributions of coal derived tars, extracts and pitches, petroleum-derived asphaltenes, and biomass derived heavy hydrocarbon liquids. Two major, interdependent strands in the study of fossil and renewable fuel utilisation are focused on within this text: (i) Thermal characterisation of solid fuels including various ranks of coals, biomass and waste, and, (ii) The analytical characterisation of heavy hydrocarbon liquids, covering coal, petroleum and biomass derived heavy fractions. Two major, interdependent strands in the study of fossil and renewable fuel utilisation are focused on within this text: (i) Thermal characterisation of solid fuels including various ranks of coals, biomass and waste, and, (ii) The analytical characterisation of heavy hydrocarbon liquids, covering coal, petroleum and biomass derived heavy fractions.

Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels

This book has been designed to offer an overview of different aspects of the geochemistry of fossil fuels, in particular the functioning of a petroleum system.

Author : Alain-Yves Huc

Release : 2013

Publisher : Editions TECHNIP

ISBN : 9782710809906

File Size : 50.69 MB

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Understanding the origin and fate of hydrocarbons in the subsurface was the major endeavor of organic geochemists during the second half of the twentieth century. They succeeded to the point where the deciphered interplaying of elements and processes paved the way for the revolutionary concept of the petroleum system, a unifying paradigm that plays an important role in decision making associated with oil and gas exploration. The chemistry and physics involved have been addressed in a quantitative way and integrated into the other aspects of petroleum geology, giving rise to the development of numerical basin modeling. This book has been designed to offer an overview of different aspects of the geochemistry of fossil fuels, in particular the functioning of a petroleum system. In this respect, it can be viewed as a foundation for approaching basin modeling. This book will be of interest to a large audience including specialists in the field, nonspecialist professionals, and undergraduate and graduate students.

Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment

Hydrocarbons represent such a chemical store of energy that we may wonder
how they have avoided decomposition by biological processes. One thing is
clear at any rate, that fossil hydrocarbons must represent that fraction of the
biogenic ...

Author : D. MacKay

Release : 2012-12-06

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1468436171

File Size : 35.49 MB

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This volume contains papers selected from those presented at the International Symposium on the Analysis of Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment, May 23-25, 1978. The Symposium was organized by the National Water Research Institute of Environment Canada and the Institute for Environmental Studies of the University of Toronto. The purpose of the Symposium and of this volume was to bring together information on the analyses, behaviour and effects of hydro carbons and halogenated hydrocarbons on the aquatic environment. This class of contaminants presents many difficult analytical pro blems, and to a large extent our ability to identify environmental problems and assess their severity, depends on the availability of proved analytical techniques. By exposing workers in this field to the techniques and results of others we hope that progress can be made towards solving the many problems caused by these substances. The papers in this volume are divided into five categories: two plenary session addresses given by J.P. Bruce and O. Hutzinger, 11 papers describing quantitative analytical results, 12 papers on analytical methods, 9 papers on incidence, monitoring and pathways; and finally, 13 papers on drinking water, health and biological effects. We were fortunate in having the support of the many organizations and individuals listed after this preface. In particular we thank B.F. Scott and R. Knechtel for their help in organizing the Symposium, S. Paterson, C. Straka, B. Reuber, A. Bobra, R. Wan, S. Austin, G.E.

Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands

Chapter 9 VANADIUM: KEY TO VENEZUELAN FOSSIL HYDROCARBONS
GEORGE KAPO Introduction An unusual ... but are also larger than the total
content of all trace metals usually found in a typical fossil-hydrocarbon
accumulation.

Author :

Release : 2011-09-22

Publisher : Elsevier

ISBN : 9780080868615

File Size : 23.38 MB

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Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands

Fossil Fuels

The mechanism becomes operative after compaction of sediments and the
concomitant primary migration cease and subaerial topographic relief develops .
Hydrocarbons are then moved along well - defined migration paths toward
discharge ...

Author : Editions Technip

Release : 1980

Publisher : Editions TECHNIP

ISBN : 9782710803959

File Size : 43.49 MB

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Separation and Spectroscopy of Paraffinic Hydrocarbons from Fossil Fuels

ALKANES, MOLECULAR SIEVES, SEPARATION, NMR SPECTROSCOPY, SOLVENT EXTRACTION, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, MASS SPECTROMETRY, HYDROCARBONS, FOSSIL FUELS, COAL LIQUIFACTION.

Author : Hooshang Pakdel

Release : 1979

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 75.37 MB

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ALKANES, MOLECULAR SIEVES, SEPARATION, NMR SPECTROSCOPY, SOLVENT EXTRACTION, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, MASS SPECTROMETRY, HYDROCARBONS, FOSSIL FUELS, COAL LIQUIFACTION.

Geotechnology and Sustainable Development

Fossil. Hydrocarbons: Where,. how. much,. and. for. how. long? Stefan. M. Luthi.
2.1. Introduction. In the last few years ... On one hand, global consumption of oil,
and of fossil hydrocarbons in general, still continues to increase at a rapid pace, ...

Author : Dirk-Jan Peet

Release : 2008

Publisher : Eburon Uitgeverij B.V.

ISBN : 9059722930

File Size : 46.74 MB

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Eating Fossil Fuels

CIVILIZATION is founded upon an abundance of cheap energy derived from
hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons not only run our transportation; they provide the
power for all of our technology. Take a moment to think about your immediate
home ...

Author : Dale Pfeiffer

Release : 2009-03-01

Publisher : New Society Publishers

ISBN : 9781550923766

File Size : 62.57 MB

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A shocking outline of the interlinked crises in energy and agriculture--and appropriate responses.

More Good News

“They transform fossil hydrocarbons into goods like fertilizers. But plants are also
hydrocarbons. What is done already with fossil hydrocarbons could also be done
with photosynthetic-produced hydrocarbons: that means plants. And I think the ...

Author : David Suzuki

Release : 2010-05-01

Publisher : Greystone Books

ISBN : 1553656253

File Size : 41.81 MB

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In this edition of their bestseller, the sequel to the best-selling Good News for a Change, authors David Suzuki and Holly Dressel provide the latest inspiring stories about individuals, groups, and businesses that are making real change in the world. More Good News features the most up-to-date information about critical subjects, such as energy and the economy, not covered in the previous edition. These stories offer compelling proof from the front lines that sustainable solutions already exist.

Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes

( b ) Absi - Halabi , M .; Stanislaus , A .; Qabazard , H. Hydrocarbon Processing ,
Feb. 1997 , p . 45. ( C ) Weirauch , W. ... ( 1 ) Berkowitz , N. Fossil Hydrocarbons :
Chemistry and Technology , Academic Press : San Diego , 1997. ( g ) Zhuze , N.
G .

Author : A.E. Shilov

Release : 2001-11-30

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9781402004209

File Size : 24.45 MB

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hemistry is the science about breaking and forming of bonds between atoms. One of the most important processes for organic chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, as well as C–C in various compounds, and primarily, in hydrocarbons. Among hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane etc. ), are especially attractive as substrates for chemical transformations. This is because, on the one hand, alkanes are the main constituents of oil and natural gas, and consequently are the principal feedstocks for chemical industry. On the other hand, these substances are known to be the less reactive organic compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons may be called the “noble gases of organic chemistry” and, if so, the first representative of their family – methane – may be compared with extremely inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel between noble gases and alkanes is not fully accurate. Indeed the transformations of alkanes, including methane, have been known for a long time. These reactions involve the interaction with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the main source of energy!), as well as some mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. However, all these transformations occur at elevated temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and are usually characterized by a lack of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water during burning is an extremely valuable process – but not from a chemist viewpoint.

Planetary Social Thought

And crucial here is the tapping of an energy source external to the human or
organismic body: namely the concentrated energy of fossil hydrocarbons
combusted to generate motorized propulsion. In the artificial fertilizer-based
agricultural ...

Author : Nigel Clark

Release : 2020-10-22

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

ISBN : 1509526382

File Size : 25.62 MB

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The Anthropocene has emerged as perhaps the scientific concept of the new millennium. Going further than earlier conceptions of the human–environment relationship, Anthropocene science proposes that human activity is tipping the whole Earth system into a new state, with unpredictable consequences. Social life has become a central ingredient in the dynamics of the planet itself. How should the social sciences respond to the opportunities and challenges posed by this development? In this innovative book, Clark and Szerszynski argue that social thinkers need to revise their own presuppositions about the social: to understand it as the product of a dynamic planet, self-organizing over deep time. They outline ‘planetary social thought’: a transdisciplinary way of thinking social life with and through the Earth. Using a range of case studies, they show how familiar social processes can be radically recast when looked at through a planetary lens, revealing how the world-transforming powers of human social life have always depended on the forging of relations with the inhuman potentialities of our home planet. Presenting a social theory of the planetary, this book will be essential reading for students and scholars interested in humanity’s relation to the changing Earth.

The Solar Economy

As fossil fuel reserves near exhaustion, the chemical industry must harness
biological resources if it is to survive. ... As plants are composed of hydrocarbon
compounds, logically, anything produced from fossil hydrocarbons could also be
 ...

Author : Hermann Scheer

Release : 2013-06-17

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1136547614

File Size : 86.37 MB

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The global economy and our way of life are based on the exploitation of fossil fuels, which not only threaten massive environmental and social disruption through global warming but, at present rates of consumption, will run out within decades, causing huge industrial dislocation and economic collapse. Even before then, the conflicts it causes in the Middle East and elsewhere will be frighteningly exacerbated. The alternative exists: renewable energy from renewable sources - above all, solar. Substituting renewable for fossil resources will take a new industrial revolution to avert the worst of the damage and establish a new international order. It can be done, and it can be done in time. The Solar Economy, by one of the world's most effective analysts and advocates, lays out the blueprints, showing how the political, economic and technological challenges can be met using indigenous, renewable and universally available resources, and the enormous opportunities and benefits that will flow from doing so.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

Fossil fallow is matter and energy added to, not extracted from, landscapes of
cultivation. The new combustion regime is no longer restricted by what the land
could grow. Instead fossil hydrocarbons are a kind of biotic bullion, plundered
from ...

Author : James S. Clark

Release : 2013-06-29

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 364259171X

File Size : 84.17 MB

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Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

Biofuels

Our modern way of life is intimately dependent upon fossil fuels, specifically
hydrocarbons including petroleum, coal, and natural gas. For example, the
plastic in keyboards and computers comes from crude oil or natural gas
feedstocks. One of ...

Author : Ayhan Demirbas

Release : 2008-11-14

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1848820119

File Size : 45.96 MB

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Biofuel is a renewable energy source produced from natural materials. The benefits of biofuels over traditional petroleum fuels include greater energy security, reduced environmental impact, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The most common biofuels are produced from classic food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. However, bioethanol can be produced from plentiful, domestic, cellulosic biomass resources such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal and industrial solid waste streams. There is also a growing interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel. “Biofuels: Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs” discusses the production of transportation fuels from biomass (such as wood, straw and even household waste) by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The book is an important text for students and researchers in energy engineering, as well as professional fuel engineers.

Energy and the Chemical Sciences

HYDROCARBONS VIA PHOTOSYNTHESIS* MELVIN CALVIN Laboratory of
Chemical Biodynamics, University of California, ... As the realization has grown
that fossil hydrocarbon is gradually being used up in various ways, I have
become ...

Author : S. D. Christian

Release : 2013-10-22

Publisher : Elsevier

ISBN : 1483188264

File Size : 42.79 MB

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Energy and the Chemical Sciences: The 1977 Karcher Symposium is a collection of papers that discusses the relationship between chemistry and energy problems. The selection views the relationship from varying perspective. The text also tackles the relationship while giving consideration to factors such as engineering difficulties, economic constraints, feasibility, and public policy. The coverage of the text includes topics such as a biomimetic approach to solar energy conversion; prospects for non-biological storage of solar energy; and national energy policy and the role of congress. The book will be of use to scientists, engineers, and technicians who are involved in the research, development, and implementation of alternative energy technology.

Petroleum Geoscience

Unconventional. Hydrocarbons: Oil. Shales,. Heavy. Oil,. Tar. Sands,. Shale. Gas.
and. Gas. Hydrates. K. Bjørlykke (ed.) ... We will therefore not run out of fossil
hydrocarbons for a long time but the prices will be higher because these sources
 ...

Author : Knut Bjorlykke

Release : 2010-09-16

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 9783642023323

File Size : 62.16 MB

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Petroleum geoscience comprises those geoscientific disciplines which are of greatest significance for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas. These include petroleum geology, of which sedimentary geology is the main foundation along with the contextual and modifying principles of regional, tectonic and structural geology. Additionally, biostratigraphy and micropalaeontology, organic geochemistry, and geophysical exploration and production techniques are all important tools for petroleum geoscientists in the 21st century. This comprehensive textbook present an overview of petroleum geoscience for geologists destined for the petroleum industry. It should also be useful for students interested in environmental geology, engineering geology and other aspects of sedimentary geology

Issues in Fossil Fuel Energy Technologies: 2012 Edition

In the frontal anticline structures of the MFTB (Amarilis Area) light hydrocarbons
have been produced from these turbidite systems which were deposited in a
foreland basin with a complex tectonostratigraphic evolution,” scientists in report.

Author :

Release : 2013-01-10

Publisher : ScholarlyEditions

ISBN : 1481648659

File Size : 69.39 MB

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Issues in Fossil Fuel Energy Technologies / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Oil and Gas Research in a concise format. The editors have built Issues in Fossil Fuel Energy Technologies: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Oil and Gas Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Fossil Fuel Energy Technologies: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.