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Pricing Carbon

This book should be read by anyone who wants to know what happens when emissions are capped, traded, and priced.

Author : A. Denny Ellerman

Release : 2010-01-28

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 1139486047

File Size : 40.42 MB

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The European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's largest market for carbon and the most significant multinational initiative ever taken to mobilize markets to protect the environment. It will be an important influence on the development and implementation of trading schemes in the US, Japan, and elsewhere. However, as is true of any pioneering public policy experiment, this scheme has generated much controversy. Pricing Carbon provides the first detailed description and analysis of the EU ETS, focusing on the first 'trial' period of the scheme (2005–7). Written by an international team of experts, it allows readers to get behind the headlines and come to a better understanding of what was done and what happened based on a dispassionate, empirically based review of the evidence. This book should be read by anyone who wants to know what happens when emissions are capped, traded, and priced.

Carbon Pricing

Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, as well as how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. Ê The world has recently ...

Author : Larry Kreiser

Release : 2015-08-28

Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN : 178536023X

File Size : 23.1 MB

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Carbon Pricing reflects upon and further develops the ongoing and worthwhile global debate into how to design carbon pricing, as well as how to utilize the financial proceeds in the best possible way for society. Ê The world has recently witnesse

Carbon Pricing in Japan

This open access book evaluates, from an economic perspective, various measures introduced in Japan to prevent climate change.

Author : Toshi H. Arimura

Release : 2020-09-17

Publisher : Springer Nature

ISBN : 9811569649

File Size : 73.88 MB

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This open access book evaluates, from an economic perspective, various measures introduced in Japan to prevent climate change. Although various countries have implemented such policies in response to the pressing issue of climate change, the effectiveness of those programs has not been sufficiently compared. In particular, policy evaluations in the Asian region are far behind those in North America and Europe due to data limitations and political reasons. The first part of the book summarizes measures in different sectors in Japan to prevent climate change, such as emissions trading and carbon tax, and assesses their impact. The second part shows how those policies have changed the behavior of firms and households. In addition, it presents macro-economic simulations that consider the potential of renewable energy. Lastly, based on these comprehensive assessments, it compares the effectiveness of measures to prevent climate change in Japan and Western countries. Providing valuable insights, this book will appeal to both academic researchers and policymakers seeking cost-effective measures against climate change.

Carbon Pricing

Carbon Pricing brings together experts instrumental in the development, and operation, of A

Author : John Quiggin

Release : 2014-04-25

Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN : 1782547746

File Size : 71.44 MB

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In 2012, Australia took the major step of introducing a carbon price, involving the creation of a system of emissions permits initially issued at a fixed price. Carbon Pricing brings together experts instrumental in the development, and operation, of A

Pricing Carbon in Australia

1 A note on carbon pricing terminology is needed. I use the terms carbon trading
and emissions trading interchangeably, though strictly speaking they mean
different things. Carbon is shorthand for the tradable entity, equivalent tonnes of ...

Author : Rebecca Pearse

Release : 2017-11-08

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1315363437

File Size : 88.26 MB

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In the mid-2000s it seemed that the global carbon market would take off and spark the worldwide transition to a profitable low carbon economy. A decade on, the experiment in carbon trading is failing. Carbon market schemes have been plagued by problems and resistance to carbon pricing has come from the political Left and Right. In the Australian case, a national emissions trading scheme (ETS) was dismantled after a long, bitter public debate. The replacement ‘Direct Action Plan’ is also in disrepute. Pricing Carbon in Australia examines the rise and fall of the ETS in Australia between 2007 and 2015, exploring the underlying contradictions of marketised climate policy in detail. Through this and other international examples, the book offers a critique of the political economy of marketised climate policy, exploring why the hopes for global carbon trading have been dashed. The Australian case is interpreted in light of a broader legitimation crisis as state strategies for (temporarily) displacing the climate crisis continue to fail. Importantly, in the wake of carbon market failure, alternative agendas for state action are emerging as campaigns for the retrenchment of fossil fuel assets and for just renewable energy transition continue transforming climate politics and policy as we know it. This book is a valuable resource for practitioners and academics in the fields of environmental policy and politics and social movement studies.

Effective Carbon Rates 2018 Pricing Carbon Emissions Through Taxes and Emissions Trading

Pricing carbon emissions allows countries to smoothly steer their economies
towards and along a carbon-neutral growth path. By putting a price on carbon
emissions, countries can increase resource efficiency, boost investment in clean
 ...

Author : OECD

Release : 2018-09-18

Publisher : OECD Publishing

ISBN : 9264305300

File Size : 49.62 MB

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Decarbonisation keeps climate change in check and contributes to cleaner air and water. Countries can price CO2-emissions to decarbonise their economies and steer them along a carbon-neutral growth path. Are countries using this tool to its full potential?

Business in a Changing Climate

Business in a Changing Climate is the first book to ask major pollution emitting industries in Canada what their preferences are with respect to climate change.

Author : Kaija Belfry Munroe

Release : 2016

Publisher : University of Toronto Press

ISBN : 1487500556

File Size : 55.45 MB

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Climate change skeptics and business pundits alike are convinced that any public policy instruments used to curtail environmental degradation are antithetical to the interests of the corporate community. However, many companies have actually come out in favour of carbon pricing. In Business in a Changing Climate, Kaija Belfry Munroe examines this counterintuitive action and, in doing so, explains how large firms determine their preferences for public policy options. Her analysis of thirteen industrial associations and seventeen firms from industries such as petrochemical, forestry, mining, and steel, reveals that, despite the higher costs, these industries prefer carbon pricing over voluntary agreements. Based on enlightening interviews with executives, government, and NGO officials, Belfry Munroe argues that the acceptance of climate change policy by companies is determined by the risks posed to capital investments and investor concern. Business in a Changing Climate is the first book to ask major pollution emitting industries in Canada what their preferences are with respect to climate change.

Global Carbon Pricing

California's cap-and-trade, or Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in the
eastern United States. All these markets require emitters to own carbon permits.
They all price carbon emissions. The Kyoto Protocol does not. Under the Kyoto ...

Author : Peter Cramton

Release : 2017-06-16

Publisher : MIT Press

ISBN : 0262340399

File Size : 25.52 MB

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Why the traditional “pledge and review” climate agreements have failed, and how carbon pricing, based on trust and reciprocity, could succeed. After twenty-five years of failure, climate negotiations continue to use a “pledge and review” approach: countries pledge (almost anything), subject to (unenforced) review. This approach ignores everything we know about human cooperation. In this book, leading economists describe an alternate model for climate agreements, drawing on the work of the late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom and others. They show that a “common commitment” scheme is more effective than an “individual commitment” scheme; the latter depends on altruism while the former involves reciprocity (“we will if you will”). The contributors propose that global carbon pricing is the best candidate for a reciprocal common commitment in climate negotiations. Each country would commit to placing charges on carbon emissions sufficient to match an agreed global price formula. The contributors show that carbon pricing would facilitate negotiations and enforcement, improve efficiency and flexibility, and make other climate policies more effective. Additionally, they analyze the failings of the 2015 Paris climate conference. Contributors Richard N. Cooper, Peter Cramton, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Gollier, Éloi Laurent, David JC MacKay, William Nordhaus, Axel Ockenfels, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Steven Stoft, Jean Tirole, Martin L. Weitzman

Effective Carbon Rates Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems

Pricing carbon with market-based instruments is one of the most effective and
lowestcost means of inducing carbon abatement. while pricing alone is not
sufficient to deliver the degree of abatement required for a low carbon transition,
it is an ...

Author : OECD

Release : 2016-09-26

Publisher : OECD Publishing

ISBN : 9264260110

File Size : 62.82 MB

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This report presents the first full analysis of the use of carbon pricing on energy in 41 OECD and G20 economies, covering 80% of global energy use and of CO2 emissions.

Carbon Pricing Under Political Constraints

We then present numerical results demonstrating that improvements in total welfare and carbon abatement can be achieved by the strategic application of carbon pricing revenues under each of the four political constraints considered (Section ...

Author : Valerie J. Karplus

Release : 2017

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 86.11 MB

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Introduction: For decades, the economically efficient prescription for the severe consequences of global climate change has been clear: establish a price on emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) that internalizes the far-reaching external costs of climate change in market transactions (e.g., Nordhaus 1992; Stavins 1997; Stern 2007). In sharp contrast to this prescription, a diverse patchwork of climate policy measures has proliferated, and where CO2 pricing policies do exist, the prices established typically fall far short of the levels necessary to fully internalize the estimated marginal social cost of climate damages. The failure of governments to establish a pricing (or equivalent market based) approach to climate change mitigation -- or to adequately price carbon when they succeed in doing so -- can be largely attributed to a variety of persistent political economy challenges. In particular, climate change mitigation is a global collective action challenge (Olson 1984), demanding coordination among many disparate stakeholders (e.g., nations, emitting industries, individual consumers). Meanwhile, the benefits of climate mitigation are uncertain, unevenly distributed, and accrue primarily to future generations (IPCC 2014), while the costs of climate mitigation are born immediately, with acute distributional impacts for particular constituencies (Burtraw et al. 2002; Bovenberg, Goulder, and Gurney 2005; Rausch and Karplus 2014). Climate mitigation thus has all the hallmarks of an intergenerational principal agent problem (Eisenhardt 1989), with private costs of mitigation out of proportion to the private benefits for many actors. Furthermore, climate policy must be established through political processes, which invoke classic challenges in public choice (Arrow 1970; Black 1987; Buchanan and Tullock 1999; Downs 1957) and are vulnerable to capture by vested interests (Stigler 1971). Voters frequently express limited tolerance for measures that have salient impacts on their private welfare (such as tax or energy price increases) (Kotchen, Boyle, and Leiserowitz 2013; Johnson and Nemet 2010). Industrial sectors with high concentrations of assets that would lose considerable value under carbon pricing policies (e.g., fossil energy extraction, fossil electricity production, fuel refining, concrete production, and energy-intensive manufacturing) have also mounted vociferous and often effective opposition to climate policies. As a result of these public choice dynamics, policy-makers tend to support policies that minimize salient impacts on businesses and households, minimize burdens on strategically important sectors, and/or redistribute rents in a manner that secures a politically-durable coalition. In practice, policy-makers have thus preferred command-and-control regulations that are narrowly targeted (and thus allow for regulatory capture while reducing scope for opposition) and subsidies (which allow for transfers of rents while spreading policy costs broadly and indirectly across the tax base), rather than uniformly pricing CO2 (Gawel, Strunz, and Lehmann 2014; Karplus 2011). These persistent political economy constraints motivate a search for climate policies that are politically feasible, environmentally effective, and economically efficient (Jenkins 2014). As in many other domains of economic regulation, second best (Lipsey and Lancaster 1956) climate policy mechanisms abound. By paying close attention to the distributional impacts of different climate policy instruments and their interaction with potentially binding political constraints, economists, political scientists, and policy-makers can help design climate policy responses that are both palatable enough to be implemented today and economically superior to politically feasible alternatives. In light of these challenges, this chapter aims to develop general insights about the design of climate policy in the face of binding political constraints. We employ a stylized partial-equilibrium model of the energy sector to explore the welfare implications of combining a CO2 price with the strategic application of revenues to compensate for and/or relieve several potential political constraints on carbon pricing policies. Specifically, we implement constraints of varying severity on: 1) the maximum feasible CO2 price itself; 2) the maximum tolerable increase in final energy prices; 3) a maximum tolerable decline in energy consumer surplus; and 4) a maximum decline in fossil energy producer surplus. Under each political constraint, we identify the CO2 price, subsidy for clean energy production, and lump-sum transfers to energy consumers or fossil energy producers that maximizes total welfare. This chapter begins by contrasting the range of carbon pricing policies implemented across the world with estimates of the full social cost of carbon (Section 3.2). We then introduce our model formulation and stylized representations of four political constraints that could explain the relatively low carbon prices that have been achieved to date in real world policy-making contexts (Section 3.3). We then present numerical results demonstrating that improvements in total welfare and carbon abatement can be achieved by the strategic application of carbon pricing revenues under each of the four political constraints considered (Section 3.4). Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for climate policy and ongoing research (Section 3.5).

Carbon Pricing, Growth and the Environment

ïThe scope, depth and persistence with which this book explores carbon pricing is admirable, reflecting that despite political reluctance it is a topic in all parts of the world.Í _ Mikael Skou Andersen, Aarhus University, Denmark and ...

Author : Lawrence A. Kreiser

Release : 2012-01-01

Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN : 1781952191

File Size : 28.19 MB

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ïThe scope, depth and persistence with which this book explores carbon pricing is admirable, reflecting that despite political reluctance it is a topic in all parts of the world.Í _ Mikael Skou Andersen, Aarhus University, Denmark and European Environment Agency ïEnvironmental taxation and emissions trading continue to be high on the public policy agenda in many countries, and this is another welcome and very interesting volume in the Critical Issues in Environmental Taxation series that presents new ideas and evidence on these subjects from a wide range of countries and a variety of perspectives.Í _ Paul Ekins, University College London, UK This original and timely volume provides unique insights and analysis on the pressing question of how to achieve environmental sustainability while fostering economic growth. The emphasis of the book lies in finding critical solutions to global climate change including chapters on environmental fiscal reform and unemployment in Spain, EU structural and cohesion policy and sustainable development, ecological tax reform in Europe and Asia, AustraliaÍs carbon pricing mechanism, and many other timely topics. This insightful volume will appeal to policy makers in government as well as academics and students in environmental law, environmental economics and environmental sustainability.

How Does State-Level Carbon Pricing in the United States Affect Industrial Competitiveness?

Abstract: Pricing carbon emissions from a jurisdiction could harm the competitiveness of local firms, causing the leakage of emissions and economic activity to other regions.

Author : Brendan J. Casey

Release : 2020

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 76.83 MB

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Pricing carbon emissions from a jurisdiction could harm the competitiveness of local firms, causing the leakage of emissions and economic activity to other regions. Past research concentrated on national carbon prices, but the impacts of subnational carbon prices could be more severe due to the openness of regional economies. Focusing on subnational carbon pricing in the United States, we specify a flexible model to capture competition between a plant in a state with carbon pricing and plants in other states or countries. We estimate model parameters using confidential plant-level data from 1982--2011 and simulate the effects of regional carbon prices covering the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic (regions that currently cap carbon emissions from the electric sector) on manufacturing output, employment, and profits. Importantly, we model industry mix within a state or region, not simply energy price differences. A carbon price of $10 per metric ton reduces employment in the regulated region by 2.7 percent, and raises employment in nearby states by 0.8 percent; the effects on output and profits are broadly similar. National employment falls just 0.1 percent, suggesting that domestic plants in other states as opposed to foreign facilities are the principal winners from state or regional carbon pricing.

Markets for Carbon and Power Pricing in Europe

A vector error correction model of the interactions among gas, electricity and
carbon prices: an application to the cases of Germany and the United Kingdom
Derek W. Bunn and Carlo Fezzi 6.1 INTRODUCTION The European Emissions ...

Author : Francesco Gullì

Release : 2009-01-01

Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN : 1848445032

File Size : 20.93 MB

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Whether it concerns environmental economics or law and economics, two areas of science in which I feel well at home, publisher Edward Elgar is a front-runner time and again with relevant and solid publications. This time is no exception, with this book edited by Francesco Gullì. Edwin Woerdman, Tijdschrift voor Energierecht Why do power prices seem to be correlated with the carbon price in some markets and not in others? This crucial question is at the centre of Francesco Gullì s enlightening book, through which the contributing authors investigate a number of related issues. In particular, they explore why power firms are not consistent in passing-through into power prices the opportunity cost of carbon. They also examine the relationship between the pass-through mechanism and the structure of the power market. This informative study brings together and interprets original contributions by leading experts from every EU country. Beginning with an overview of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) along with an in-depth analysis of the early results and the theoretical issues involved, the book then goes on to explore the main European power markets via a number of empirical case studies. Overall, this volume offers a genuinely comprehensive analysis on the relationship between carbon and power markets and, as such, will prove a valuable contribution to the debate on the EU ETS and to the literature on the interaction between environmental policy and the structure of environmentally regulated markets. Markets for Carbon and Power Pricing in Europe will be of great interest to researchers and academics within general economics, environmental and energy economics. It will also be warmly welcomed by policymakers, regulators and power sector operators.

State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014

The carbon price and its determinants The European Commission's (EC)
expectation in 2008–at the start of Phase II of the scheme–was that it would allow
international credits “up to a level which would ensure that the carbon price in the
EU is ...

Author : World Bank World Bank

Release : 2014-05-28

Publisher : World Bank Publications

ISBN : 1464802688

File Size : 23.7 MB

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The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. A challenging international carbon market has not stopped the development of domestic carbon pricing initiatives. Today, about 40 national and over 20 sub-national jurisdictions responsible for almost one fourth of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Together, these initiatives cover the equivalent of almost 6 gigatons of carbon dioxide, or about 12% of global emissions.

Canada’s Carbon Price Floor

The pan-Canadian approach to carbon pricing, announced in October 2016, ensures that carbon pricing applies throughout Canada in 2018, with increasing stringency over time to reduce emissions.

Author : Ian W.H. Parry

Release : 2018-03-08

Publisher : International Monetary Fund

ISBN : 1484346580

File Size : 79.44 MB

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The pan-Canadian approach to carbon pricing, announced in October 2016, ensures that carbon pricing applies throughout Canada in 2018, with increasing stringency over time to reduce emissions. Canadian provinces and territories have the flexibility to either implement an explicit price-based system—with a minimum price of CAN $10 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2018, increasing to CAN $50 per tonne by 2022—or an equivalently scaled emissions trading system. This paper discusses the rationale for, and design of, the price floor requirement; its (provincial-level) environmental, fiscal, and economic welfare impacts; monitoring issues; and (national-level) incidence. The general conclusion is that the welfare costs and implementation issues are manageable, and pricing provides significant new revenues. A challenge is that the floor price by itself appears well short of what will be needed by 2030 for Canada’s Paris Agreement pledge.

How Much Carbon Pricing is in Countries’ Own Interests? The Critical Role of Co-Benefits

Onaverage these prices are quite high, $57.5 per ton ofCO , suggestingthat (most
)high-emitting countries need not wait on global coordinationto move ahead with
carbon pricing programs because the domestic environmental benefits ...

Author : Ian W.H. Parry

Release : 2014-09-17

Publisher : International Monetary Fund

ISBN : 1498330142

File Size : 30.62 MB

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This paper calculates, for the top twenty emitting countries, how much pricing of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is in their own national interests due to domestic co-benefits (leaving aside the global climate benefits). On average, nationally efficient prices are substantial, $57.5 per ton of CO2 (for year 2010), reflecting primarily health co-benefits from reduced air pollution at coal plants and, in some cases, reductions in automobile externalities (net of fuel taxes/subsidies). Pricing co-benefits reduces CO2 emissions from the top twenty emitters by 13.5 percent (a 10.8 percent reduction in global emissions). However, co-benefits vary dramatically across countries (e.g., with population exposure to pollution) and differentiated pricing of CO2 emissions therefore yields higher net benefits (by 23 percent) than uniform pricing. Importantly, the efficiency case for pricing carbon’s co-benefits hinges critically on (i) weak prospects for internalizing other externalities through other pricing instruments and (ii) productive use of carbon pricing revenues.

Carbon Pricing in Climate Policy: Seven Reasons, Complementary Instruments, and Political Economy Considerations

Abstract : Carbon pricing is a recurrent theme in debates on climate policy. Discarded at the 2009 COP in Copenhagen, it remained part of deliberations for a climate agreement in subsequent years.

Author :

Release : 2017

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 24.89 MB

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Abstract : Carbon pricing is a recurrent theme in debates on climate policy. Discarded at the 2009 COP in Copenhagen, it remained part of deliberations for a climate agreement in subsequent years. As there is still much misunderstanding about the many reasons to implement a global carbon price, ideological resistance against it prospers. Here, we present the main arguments for carbon pricing, to stimulate a fair and well‐informed discussion about it. These include considerations that have received little attention so far. We stress that a main reason to use carbon pricing is environmental effectiveness at a relatively low cost, which in turn contributes to enhance social and political acceptability of climate policy. This includes the property that corrected prices stimulate rapid environmental innovations. These arguments are underappreciated in the public debate, where pricing is frequently downplayed and the erroneous view that innovation policies are sufficient is widespread. Carbon pricing and technology policies are, though, largely complementary and thus are both needed for effective climate policy. We also comment on the complementarity of other instruments to carbon pricing. We further discuss distributional consequences of carbon pricing and present suggestions on how to address these. Other political economy issues that receive attention are lobbying, co‐benefits, international policy coordination, motivational crowding in/out, and long‐term commitment. The overview ends with reflections on implementing a global carbon price, whether through a carbon tax or emissions trading. The discussion goes beyond traditional arguments from environmental economics by including relevant insights from energy research and innovation studies as well. WIREs Clim Change 2017, 8:e462. doi: 10.1002/wcc.462 For further resources related to this article, please visit theWIREs website .

Climate Risk

This book explores the critical question of how much climate risk insurance to buy – that is, where to price carbon dioxide emissions.

Author : Bob Litterman

Release : 2021-04-19

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

ISBN : 9781118859445

File Size : 47.22 MB

Format : PDF

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Climate change is fundamentally a risk management problem Climate Risk examines climate change as a risk management issue, detailing the problems inherent in that necessary but complex perspective. Written by a recognized risk management leader, this book details the impact of climate change on both the current economy, and the economy of future generations. Drawing on the insight of a team of Nobel Prize-winning economists, this informative book outlines the factors that make it difficult to price carbon emissions correctly, discusses the perspectives surrounding carbon emission taxation, and explores the probability of various climate change scenarios in the context of damages and valuation. Readers will find detailed arguments for why risk managers should already be taking climate change seriously, and delve into the economic analysis of this global problem. Pricing climate risk properly is key to making the economy work long-term while also being mindful of the potential tail risk and uncertainty that humans often ignore. People are not very good at making rational decisions about rare outcomes, raising the concern of an overreaction when society finally does react to the risk of climate catastrophe and begins to price it. This book explores the critical question of how much climate risk insurance to buy – that is, where to price carbon dioxide emissions. Examine climate change as a risk management problem Delve into the issues surrounding carbon emission pricing Consider appropriate tax levels for emissions Learn how the future economy will be impacted by climate change Damages from climate change won't hit the economy for a while, and the potential for a low-probability/high-damage scenario is so uncertain that it is only recently being discussed academically. Risk managers must be prepared for what's to come, and Climate Risk begins the conversation with some of the best minds in the industry.

Living in a Low-Carbon Society in 2050

ZCB offers threeroad maps for capping carbon through pricing mechanisms: •
Roadmap one: Onepriceforall, whichoffersa reduced role fornational andblocs of
countries by agreeing a global carbonprice within an international treaty, such as
 ...

Author : H. Herring

Release : 2012-08-29

Publisher : Springer

ISBN : 1137264896

File Size : 82.34 MB

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Combining theory, case studies and speculative fiction, a range of contributors, from leading UK academics to pioneering renewable activists, create a compelling picture of the potential perks and pitfalls of a low carbon future.

Carbon Trading & Pricing

This book, written by Joost L M Kanen and published in 2006, is an essential guide to the factors influencing the price of emissions allowances in the EU.

Author : Joost L. M. Kanen

Release : 2006

Publisher :

ISBN : 9780955372018

File Size : 23.38 MB

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This book, written by Joost L M Kanen and published in 2006, is an essential guide to the factors influencing the price of emissions allowances in the EU.