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Salience Network of the Human Brain

Salience Network of the Human Brain focuses on the multiple sources of stimuli that compete for our attention, providing interesting discussions on how the relative salience—importance or prominence—of each of these inputs determines ...

Author : Lucina Q. Uddin

Release : 2016-08-24

Publisher : Academic Press

ISBN : 0128045949

File Size : 38.44 MB

Format : PDF, ePub

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Salience Network of the Human Brain focuses on the multiple sources of stimuli that compete for our attention, providing interesting discussions on how the relative salience—importance or prominence—of each of these inputs determines which ones we choose to focus on for more in-depth processing. The salience network is a collection of regions of the brain that select which stimuli are deserving of our attention. The network has key nodes in the insular cortex and is critical for detecting behaviorally relevant stimuli and for coordinating the brain’s neural resources in response to these stimuli. The insular cortex is a complex and multipurpose structure that plays a role in numerous cognitive functions related to perception, emotion, and interpersonal experience—and the failure of this network to function properly can lead to numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, psychosis, and dementia. Presents the only publication available that summarizes our understanding of the salience network in one resource Authored by a leading research on this important aspect of attention Focuses on the multiple sources of stimuli that compete for our attention, providing interesting discussions on how the relative salience—importance or prominence—of each of these inputs determines which ones we choose to focus on for more in-depth processing

Brain Mapping

It should be noted that this paralimbic–limbic salience network is distinct from the
dorsal spatial attention network, ... brain organization can provide novel insights
into distinct, domaingeneral, cognitive control systems in the human brain.

Author :

Release : 2015-02-14

Publisher : Academic Press

ISBN : 0123973163

File Size : 90.50 MB

Format : PDF, Kindle

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Brain Mapping: A Comprehensive Reference offers foundational information for students and researchers across neuroscience. With over 300 articles and a media rich environment, this resource provides exhaustive coverage of the methods and systems involved in brain mapping, fully links the data to disease (presenting side by side maps of healthy and diseased brains for direct comparisons), and offers data sets and fully annotated color images. Each entry is built on a layered approach of the content – basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for experienced readers. Edited and authored by the leading experts in the field, this work offers the most reputable, easily searchable content with cross referencing across articles, a one-stop reference for students, researchers and teaching faculty. Broad overview of neuroimaging concepts with applications across the neurosciences and biomedical research Fully annotated color images and videos for best comprehension of concepts Layered content for readers of different levels of expertise Easily searchable entries for quick access of reputable information Live reference links to ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed

Island of Reil (Insula) in the Human Brain

27.4. Salience. Network. Rather than mapping complex cognitive functions onto
localized brain regions, a network perspective understands cognition as being
supported by a series of large-scale distributed networks [101]. Using functional ...

Author : Mehmet Turgut

Release : 2018-07-24

Publisher : Springer

ISBN : 3319754688

File Size : 71.81 MB

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This book provides an in-depth review of the insula, with emphasis on anatomical, diagnostics, clinical, and surgical features. The insular cortex is involved in a variety of functions, but a comprehensive resource cataloging these functions is not available in the current literature. This book gathers highly informative chapters written and edited by leading international authorities in the field and covers the full range of the insular cortex, approaching it in four main sections: firstly, the embryology and anatomy of the human insula; secondly, the functions of the human insula, including its role in nociception, language, decision making, cognition, emotional awareness etc.; thirdly, clinical disorders related to the insula such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease; and fourthly, surgical techniques for insular gliomas and temporal lobe epilepsy. This comprehensive reference book will be an ideal source for neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuroanatomists seeking both basic and more advanced information regarding this unique structure in the human brain.

The Shallows

Vinod Menon, “Salience Network,” Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference,
vol. 2 (Oxford: Elsevier, 2015), 597–611. 16. Ibid. See also Lucina Q. Uddin,
Salience Network of the Human Brain (Oxford: Elsevier, 2017). 17. See, for
example ...

Author : Nicholas Carr

Release : 2010-09-01

Publisher : Atlantic Books Ltd

ISBN : 1848878834

File Size : 65.59 MB

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'Boldly reactionary... What looks like feast, Carr argues, may be closer to famine' Sunday Times 'Chilling' The Economist In this ground-breaking and compelling book, Nicholas Carr argues that not since Gutenberg invented printing has humanity been exposed to such a mind-altering technology. The Shallows draws on the latest research to show that the Net is literally re-wiring our brains inducing only superficial understanding. As a consequence there are profound changes in the way we live and communicate, remember and socialise - even in our very conception of ourselves. By moving from the depths of thought to the shallows of distraction, the web, it seems, is actually fostering ignorance. The Shallows is not a manifesto for luddites, nor does it seek to turn back the clock. Rather it is a revelatory reminder of how far the Internet has become enmeshed in our daily existence and is affecting the way we think. This landmark book compels us all to look anew at our dependence on this all-pervasive technology. This 10th-anniversary edition includes a new afterword that brings the story up to date, with a deep examination of the cognitive and behavioural effects of smartphones and social media.

Handbook of Emotions, Fourth Edition

Salience Processing in the Human Brain From this point in the chapter, we use
the term “salience” to refer to the ... referred to as the salience network (Seeley et
al., 2007), which is also called the ventral attention network (Corbetta et al., 2008;
 ...

Author : Lisa Feldman Barrett

Release : 2016-08-02

Publisher : Guilford Publications

ISBN : 1462525342

File Size : 64.36 MB

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Recognized as the definitive reference, this handbook brings together leading experts from multiple psychological subdisciplines to examine one of today's most dynamic areas of research. Coverage encompasses the biological and neuroscientific underpinnings of emotions, as well as developmental, social and personality, cognitive, and clinical perspectives. The volume probes how people understand, experience, express, and perceive affective phenomena and explores connections to behavior and health across the lifespan. Concluding chapters present cutting-edge work on a range of specific emotions. Illustrations include 10 color plates. New to This Edition *Chapters on the mechanisms, processes, and influences that contribute to emotions (such as genetics, the brain, neuroendocrine processes, language, the senses of taste and smell). *Chapters on emotion in adolescence, older age, and in neurodegenerative dementias. *Chapters on facial expressions and emotional body language. *Chapters on stress, health, gratitude, love, and empathy. *Many new authors and topics; extensively revised with the latest theoretical and methodological innovations.

Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging

Salience network disruption and DMN enhancement correlate with clinical
severity in bvFTD patients [116]. ... 5 0 4 0 V SN DSN EX N RATT/WM N I RATT/
WM N II LATT/WM N pAD versus HC human brain in healthy and diseased
individuals.

Author :

Release : 2015-10-29

Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN : 0199664099

File Size : 90.39 MB

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Part of the Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Neurology series, the Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging provides an overview of the established and latest neuroimaging methodologies, and illustrates their application to the main diseases of the brain and the spinal cord including movement disorders, headache and stroke. In addition, assessments of neuroimaging techniques in both adult and paediatric neurological conditions are included, enabling thorough examples from both age groups. This full-colour book contains 280 detailed photographs and illustrations that enable a clear understanding of each technique. Covering the newest advances, each different imagining technique is comprehensively described, providing a practical relevance and a stimulus for more in-depth readings. The print edition is supplemented with a concurrent online edition, which allows access to the full content of the textbook, contains links from the references to primary research journal articles, and provides access to figures and tables that can be downloaded by the user. Providing a balanced state-of-the-art guide to neuroimaging for neurologists and radiologists, this title will enhance understanding of the pathophysiological basis of neurological conditions and will help set the stage for future research.

Cognition and neuroimaging in schizophrenia

It is suggested that there is support for recently proposed models that suggest a
pivotal role for the salience network. ... Alternatively, it is proposed that
schizophrenia arises from a uniquely human brain network associated with
directed effort ...

Author : Kenneth Hugdahl

Release :

Publisher : Frontiers E-books

ISBN : 2889190714

File Size : 26.87 MB

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Last year we edited a Frontiers Research Topic on “An update on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia and depression”. We are now following-up this initiative with a new invitation, focusing on “Cognition and neuroimaging in schizophrenia”, thus narrowing the focus on schizophrenia, but expanding the focus to functional and structural neuroimaging to reveal the underlying neuronal architecture behind cognitive impairments. A second focus is closing in on auditory hallucinations and "hearing voices" in the general population by non-psychotic individuals. This has become an important topic in research on schizophrenia and could cast new light on commonalities in symptom-like behavior in non-clinical and clinical “voice hearers” and hallucinating individuals, that in turn could say something about a continuum of symptoms. A third focus is on network connectivity and connectome mapping in schizophrenia using novel state-of-the-art neuroimaging analysis tools. Schizophrenia has long been considered a disease of disconnectivity and thus special emphasis is given to work which addresses the schizophrenia macro-connectome including both functional and structural aspects. Central to such an approach are recent discoveries of intrinsic resting state networks that are task independent, and/or activated in the absence of a cognitive task. Possible impairments in the dynamic interactions between large-scale networks may prove new insights into the neurobiology of schizophrenia and schizophrenia symptoms.

Dementia

However, the salience network is also thought to continuously survey the internal
(and external) terrain to signal the ... homeostatic, and affective systems of the
human brain, providing a link between stimulusdriven processing and brain ...

Author : Bradford Dickerson

Release : 2014-08-01

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0199321728

File Size : 48.81 MB

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Dementia: Comprehensive Principles and Practice is a clinically-oriented book designed for clinicians, scientists, and other health professionals involved in the diagnosis, management, and investigation of disease states causing dementia. A "who's who" of internationally-recognized experts contribute chapters emphasizing a multidisciplinary approach to understanding dementia. The organization of the book takes an integrative approach by providing three major sections that (1) establish the neuroanatomical and cognitive framework underlying disorders of cognition, (2) provide fundamental as well as cutting-edge material covering specific diseases associated with dementia, and (3) discuss approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of dementing illnesses.

Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders

Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using
echoplanar MRI. Magnet Reson Med, 34(4), ... Salience network integrity predicts
default mode network function after traumatic brain injury. P Natl Acad Sci USA,
109(12), ...

Author : Joseph I Tracy

Release : 2014-11-04

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0190205466

File Size : 85.54 MB

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Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders describes and specifies the cognitive impact of neuroplastic processes in key neurologic disorders and syndromes. It is set apart from previous works in this area by its emphasis on the changing quality of neurocognition, demonstrating that this dynamic nature emerges from the neuroplastic processes at work in both mild and severe states of brain disease or injury. This resource describes the ways neurological illness or trauma (or attempts to treat patients with such conditions) can trigger neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain, inducing cognitive reorganization and remapping of brain networks. Each chapter shows how the cognitive and behavioral presentation of the disorder mirrors the changing neurobiologic context, and displays the numerous techniques being employed (e.g. behavior and rehabilitation therapies, electrical stimulation, and computer/machine neuromodulation of brain signals) underlying the neurobiology in ways that facilitate adaptive plasticity and cognitive recovery. An important feature of the book involves characterizing the degree to which the mechanistic principles governing neuroplastic responses and cognitive reorganization in the brain have been elucidated, making clear that it is these principles which will allow us to further develop rational rehabilitative therapies, match patients to appropriate treatments, and even begin to predict clinical treatment outcomes.

Hardwiring Happiness

The New Brain Science of Contentment, Calm, and Confidence Rick Hanson ...
healing, everyday well-being and effectiveness, long-term health, fulfilling
relationships, and the highest reaches of human potential. ... Consequently, the
brain evolved a salience network that reacts to good news, like the face of a
friend, ...

Author : Rick Hanson

Release : 2013-10-08

Publisher : Harmony

ISBN : 0385347324

File Size : 43.15 MB

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With New York Times bestselling author, Dr. Hanson's four steps, you can counterbalance your brain's negativity bias and learn to hardwire happiness in only a few minutes each day. Why is it easier to ruminate over hurt feelings than it is to bask in the warmth of being appreciated? Because your brain evolved to learn quickly from bad experiences and slowly from good ones, but you can change this. Life isn’t easy, and having a brain wired to take in the bad and ignore the good makes us worried, irritated, and stressed, instead of confident, secure, and happy. But each day is filled with opportunities to build inner strengths and Dr. Rick Hanson, an acclaimed clinical psychologist, shows what you can do to override the brain’s default pessimism. Hardwiring Happiness lays out a simple method that uses the hidden power of everyday experiences to build new neural structures full of happiness, love, confidence, and peace. You’ll learn to see through the lies your brain tells you. Dr. Hanson’s four steps build strengths into your brain to make contentment and a powerful sense of resilience the new normal. In just minutes a day, you can transform your brain into a refuge and power center of calm and happiness.

Clinical Applications of Functional MRI, An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics,

Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive
control. J Neurosci 2007;27(9):2349–56. ... fMRI resting state networks define
distinct modes of long-distance interactions in the human brain. Neuroimage
2006 ...

Author : Jay J. Pillai

Release : 2014-11-13

Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN : 0323323847

File Size : 89.33 MB

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Editor Jay J. Pillai and authors review important areas in Clinical Applications of Functional MRI. Articles will include: Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Presurgical Planning; Visual Mapping Using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional MRI; Applications of BOLD fMRI and DTI in Epilepsy; Pretherapeutic fMRI in Children; BOLD fMRI for Presurgical Planning; Brain Tensor Imaging for Brain Malformations: Does it Help?; Technical Considerations for fMRI Analysis; Special Considerations/Technical Limitations of BOLD fMRI; The Economics of Functional MRI: Clinical and Research; Memory Assessment in the Clinical Context Using fMRI: A Critical Look at the State of the Field; Resting State BOLD fMRI for Pre-surgical Planning, and more!

Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems

Alter and Basri ( AB95 ] applied the so - called Salient Network method for
extracting salient curves and noted that this method ... curvature in an attempt to
identify the useful convolution operators for CT / MRI matching of human brain
scans .

Author : Jiming Liu

Release : 2001

Publisher : World Scientific

ISBN : 9789812811844

File Size : 58.41 MB

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An autonomous agent is a computational system that acquires sensory data from its environment and decides by itself how to relate the external stimulus to its behaviors in order to attain certain goals. Responding to different stimuli received from its task environment, the agent may select and exhibit different behavioral patterns. The behavioral patterns may be carefully predefined or dynamically acquired by the agent based on some learning and adaptation mechanism(s). In order to achieve structural flexibility, reliability through redundancy, adaptability, and reconfigurability in real-world tasks, some researchers have started to address the issue of multiagent cooperation. Broadly speaking, the power of autonomous agents lies in their ability to deal with unpredictable, dynamically changing environments. Agent-based systems are becoming one of the most important computer technologies, holding out many promises for solving real-world problems. The aims of this book are to provide a guided tour to the pioneering work and the major technical issues in agent research, and to give an in-depth discussion on the computational mechanisms for behavioral engineering in autonomous agents. Through a systematic examination, the book attempts to provide the general design principles for building autonomous agents and the analytical tools for modeling the emerged behavioral properties of a multiagent system. Contents: Behavioral Modeling, Planning, and Learning; Synthetic Autonomy; Dynamics of Distributed Computation; Self-Organized Autonomy in Multi-Agent Systems; Autonomy-Oriented Computation; Dynamics and Complexity of Autonomy-Oriented Computation. Readership: Undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and most engineering disciplines, as well as computer scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in the field of machine intelligence.

Mental Processes in the Human Brain

7 Morphology, language and the brain: the decompositional substrate for
language comprehension William D. ... hemisphere damage, we argue for a core
decompositional network linking left inferior frontal cortex with superior and
middle temporal cortex, connected via the arcuate fasciculus. ... The salience of
grammatical morphemes for the language system is highlighted by new research
showing that ...

Author : Jon Driver

Release : 2008-02-21

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0199230617

File Size : 51.94 MB

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Mental Processes in the Human Brain provides an integrative overview of the rapid advances and future challenges in understanding the neurobiological basis of mental processes that are characteristically human. With chapters from leading figures in the brain sciences, it will be essential for all those in the cognitive and brain sciences.

The Body Keeps the Score

Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma Bessel van der Kolk, M.D. ... (
2005): 479–96, J. Fang, et al., “The Salient Characteristics of the Central Effects
of Acupuncture Needling: LimbicParalimbic-Neocortical Network Modulation,"
Human Brain Mapping 30 (2009): 1196–206; D. Feinstein, "Rapid Treatment of
PTSD.

Author : Bessel van der Kolk, M.D.

Release : 2014-09-25

Publisher : Penguin

ISBN : 1101608307

File Size : 65.7 MB

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#1 New York Times bestseller “Essential reading for anyone interested in understanding and treating traumatic stress and the scope of its impact on society.” —Alexander McFarlane, Director of the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies A pioneering researcher transforms our understanding of trauma and offers a bold new paradigm for healing in this New York Times bestseller Trauma is a fact of life. Veterans and their families deal with the painful aftermath of combat; one in five Americans has been molested; one in four grew up with alcoholics; one in three couples have engaged in physical violence. Dr. Bessel van der Kolk, one of the world’s foremost experts on trauma, has spent over three decades working with survivors. In The Body Keeps the Score, he uses recent scientific advances to show how trauma literally reshapes both body and brain, compromising sufferers’ capacities for pleasure, engagement, self-control, and trust. He explores innovative treatments—from neurofeedback and meditation to sports, drama, and yoga—that offer new paths to recovery by activating the brain’s natural neuroplasticity. Based on Dr. van der Kolk’s own research and that of other leading specialists, The Body Keeps the Score exposes the tremendous power of our relationships both to hurt and to heal—and offers new hope for reclaiming lives.

Advances in Physiology Research and Application: 2012 Edition

A report, 'Functional connectivity of the insula in the resting brain,' is newly
published data in Neuroimage. According to recent research from Turin, Italy, “
The human insula is hidden in the depth of the cerebral hemisphere by the
overlying frontal and ... Correlation maps are partially lateralized: the salience
network, related to the ventral anterior insula, displays stronger connections with
the anterior ...

Author :

Release : 2012-12-26

Publisher : ScholarlyEditions

ISBN : 1464991499

File Size : 40.3 MB

Format : PDF

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Advances in Physiology Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Physiology. The editors have built Advances in Physiology Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Physiology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Physiology Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Neural Networks and Statistical Learning

Networks. 7.1. Introduction. The human brain stores the information in synapses
or in reverberating loops of electrical activity. Most of existing associative memory
... Association is a salient feature of human memory. The brain recalls by ...

Author : Ke-Lin Du

Release : 2013-12-09

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN : 1447155718

File Size : 86.26 MB

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Providing a broad but in-depth introduction to neural network and machine learning in a statistical framework, this book provides a single, comprehensive resource for study and further research. All the major popular neural network models and statistical learning approaches are covered with examples and exercises in every chapter to develop a practical working understanding of the content. Each of the twenty-five chapters includes state-of-the-art descriptions and important research results on the respective topics. The broad coverage includes the multilayer perceptron, the Hopfield network, associative memory models, clustering models and algorithms, the radial basis function network, recurrent neural networks, principal component analysis, nonnegative matrix factorization, independent component analysis, discriminant analysis, support vector machines, kernel methods, reinforcement learning, probabilistic and Bayesian networks, data fusion and ensemble learning, fuzzy sets and logic, neurofuzzy models, hardware implementations, and some machine learning topics. Applications to biometric/bioinformatics and data mining are also included. Focusing on the prominent accomplishments and their practical aspects, academic and technical staff, graduate students and researchers will find that this provides a solid foundation and encompassing reference for the fields of neural networks, pattern recognition, signal processing, machine learning, computational intelligence, and data mining.

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain: Men-Ph

Each column of neurons “ sees ” just one contour element ; the spacing between
elements determines the salience of the contour relative ... favor of larger network
size and whose overall behavior , through mathematical analysis , is tractable .

Author : V. S. Ramachandran

Release : 2002

Publisher :

ISBN : 9780122272134

File Size : 30.8 MB

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Covering anatomy, physiology, neuropsychology, clinical neurology, neuropharmacology, evolutionary biology, genetics, and behavioral science, this four-volume encyclopedia contains over 200 peer reviewed signed articles from experts around the world.

Novel Tools for the Study of Structural and Functional Networks in the Brain

Integration of knowledge over these scales requires novel techniques and interpretations. In this research topic, we highlight nine articles that integrate structural and functional approaches to study brain networks.

Author : Luis M. Colon-Perez

Release : 2018-04-27

Publisher : Frontiers Media SA

ISBN : 288945472X

File Size : 78.4 MB

Format : PDF

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Throughout the history of neuroscience, technological advances are the drivers behind many major advances in our understanding of the nervous system. Investigations of the structure and function of the brain take place on multiple scales, including macroscale at the level of brain regions, mesoscale at the level of neuronal populations, and microscale at the level of single neurons and neuron to neuron interactions. Integration of knowledge over these scales requires novel techniques and interpretations. In this research topic, we highlight nine articles that integrate structural and functional approaches to study brain networks.

Introduction to Neural Networks Using Matlab 6.0

The paradigm of artificial neural networks , developed to emulate some of the
capabilities of the human brain , has demonstrated great potential for various low
- level computations and embodies salient features such as learning , fault ...

Author : S. N. Sivanandam

Release : 2006

Publisher : Tata McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN : 9780070591127

File Size : 88.4 MB

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The Myth of Executive Functioning

This neural processing occurs within seven large scale brain networks which
develop slowly in human beings [2]. These networks process or “code” the salient
properties of objects, such as what they look like and feel like, as well as what
they ...

Author : Leonard F. Koziol

Release : 2014-07-08

Publisher : Springer

ISBN : 331904477X

File Size : 85.64 MB

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Executive functioning: we measure it, assess it, document its development in youth, track its decline in age and use it as a basis for diagnoses, treatment planning and-of course-theories. Could it be possible that science has spent decades chasing a cognitive phantom? Noting the lack of consensus concerning definition, component skills, and location within the brain, The Myth of Executive Functioning calls basic assumptions, prominent theories, commonly used test methods, and even the phrase executive functioning into question. The book's deceptively simple argument takes an evolutionary/neuroscience look at the cornerstones of cognitive organization, including memory, planning, decision-making and adaptation to novel circumstances. From there, gaps are identified between systems of cognitive control and those behaviors that are evaluated in neuropsychological testing-gaps that contribute to the disconnect between how science views mind and body, brain and behavior. The author's problem-solving metaphor places new emphasis on stimulus processing and on the relationship between movement and thought as he offers thought-provoking perspectives on: The limits of neuropsychological constructs. The components of adaptive thinking. The automatic aspects of problem solving. The left-brain/right-brain dichotomy. Problems with the domain approach to cognition. New paradigms for testing cognitive functioning. A controversial presentation with the potential to change clinical practice and training, The Myth of Executive Functioning will be read, debated and learned from by neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, cognitive neuroscientists and rehabilitation specialists.