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Shi'i Interpretations of Islam

His principal works on Nizari Ismaili doctrine, the Rawda-yi taslim (Paradise of Submission) and the autobiographical Sayr wa suluk (Contemplation and Action), are already available in English translation by S. J. Badakhchani, who in this ...

Author : S.J. Badakhchani

Release : 2010-11-30

Publisher : I.B.Tauris

ISBN : 085771922X

File Size : 28.67 MB

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One of the most prominent Muslim scholars and scientists of the medieval era, Nasir al-Din Tus i (1201-1274) joined the Shi'i Nizari Ismaili community at an early age, soon after completing his education. In the course of his long and distinguished career, first under the patronage of the Ismailis at their fortresses in Persia and subsequently with the conquering Mongols, he produced over 150 works on a variety of subjects, from theology and philosophy to mathematics and astronomy. His principal works on Nizari Ismaili doctrine, the Rawda-yi taslim (Paradise of Submission) and the autobiographical Sayr wa suluk (Contemplation and Action), are already available in English translation by S. J. Badakhchani, who in this volume brings together new critical editions and translations of three shorter Ismaili works by Tusi, namely Tawallawa tabarra (Solidarity and Dissociation), Matlubal-mu'minin (Desideratum of the Faithful) and Aghaz wa anjam (Origin and Destination). In these three treatises, Tusi provides concise interpretations of key motifs in Ismaili doctrine, with special reference to the primordial nature of man, his earthly existence in relation to the Imam, and his destiny in the hereafter.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Taʾwīl in Shīʿī Tradition. In Shīʿī discourse, taʾwīl is often juxtaposed with
tanzil, with tanzīl referring, as it does in the Qurʾān itself, to the revealed words of
the Qurʾān and their literal meaning, and taʾwīl to their spiritual or esoteric ...

Author : Salim Ayduz

Release : 2014-05-01

Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN : 0199812578

File Size : 42.26 MB

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam provides both an overview and a comprehensive and detailed survey of the main features of philosophy, science, medicine and technology in the Muslim world. The level of entries are scholarly, based on primary and secondary sources, and aimed at advanced students of Islamic philosophy and science. The selection of entries as well as their content reflect the highest academic standards and most recent research in the field, providing scholars and advanced students with in-depth surveys on the most important issues in the study of these topics, serving as the authoritative reference work on this important area of research.

The Middle East in Modern World History

attempts to integrate and harmonize modern Western law and Sharia law.
schools of Islamic legal Interpretation Islam is a faith ... However, because Sunni
and Shii scholars rely on different hadith collections, this is where divergences
begin.

Author : Ernest Tucker

Release : 2016-05-23

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1315508249

File Size : 34.74 MB

Format : PDF

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The Middle East in Modern World History focuses on the history of this region over the past 200 years. It examines how global trends during this period shaped the Middle East and how these trends were affected by the region’s development. Three trends from the past two centuries are highlighted: The region as a strategic conduit between East and West The development of the region's natural resources, especially oil The impact of a rapidly globalizing world economy on the Middle East

The Study of Shi'i Islam

in interpreting the Qurʾan. Post-Occultation Imāmī-Shiʿi scholars, basing
themselves on ḥadīth al-thaqalayn and other core traditions, adhered de jure to
the view that the Imams were the exclusive authority for the interpretation of the
Qurʾan ...

Author : Gurdofarid Miskinzoda

Release : 2014-01-08

Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN : 0857723383

File Size : 35.5 MB

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Shi'i Islam, with its rich and extensive history, has played a crucial role in the evolution of Islam as both a major world religion and civilization. The prolific achievements of Shi?i theologians, philosophers and others are testament to the spiritual and intellectual wealth of this community. Yet Shi?i studies has unjustly remained a long-neglected field, despite the important contribution that Shi'ism has made to Islamic traditions. Only in recent decades, partially spurred by global interest in political events of the Middle East, have scholars made some significant contributions in this area. The Study of Shi'i Islam presents papers originally delivered at the first international colloquium dedicated exclusively to Shi'i studies, held in 2010 at The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London. Within the book are eight sections, namely, history, the Qur'an and its Shi'i interpretations, ?ad?th, law, authority, theology, rites and rituals, and intellectual traditions and philosophy. Each section begins with an introduction contextualizing the aspects of studying Shi'i Islam particular to its theme, before going on to address topics such as the state of the field, methodology and tools, and the primary issues with which contemporary scholars of Shi'i studies are dealing. The scope and depth here covered makes this book of especial interest to researchers and students alike within the field of Islamic studies. The volume benefits from the diverse expertise of nearly 30 world-class scholars, including Mohammad-Ali Amir-Moezzi, Meir M. Bar-Asher, Farhad Daftary, Daniel De Smet, Gerald R. Hawting, Nader El-Bizri, Etan Kohlberg, Wilferd Madelung, Andrew Newman, Ismail K. Poonawala, Sabine Schmidtke and Paul E. Walker.

Shi'i Islam

This book examines the development of Shi'i Islam through the lenses of belief, narrative, and memory.

Author : Najam Haider

Release : 2014-08-11

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 1107031435

File Size : 63.47 MB

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During the formative period of Islam, in the first centuries after Muhammad's death, two particular intellectual traditions emerged, Sunnism and Shi'ism. Sunni Muslims endorsed the historical caliphate, while Shi'i Muslims, supporters of 'Ali, cousin of the Prophet and the fourth caliph, articulated their own distinctive doctrines. The Sunni-Shi'i schism is often framed as a dispute over the identity of the successor to Muhammad, whereas in reality, Sunni and Shi'i Muslims also differ on a number of seminal theological doctrines concerning the nature of God and legitimate political and religious authority. This book examines the development of Shi'i Islam through the lenses of belief, narrative, and memory.It also covers a wide range of Shi'i communities from the demographically predominant Twelvers to the transnational Isma'ilis to the scholar-activist Zaydis. The portrait of Shi'ism that emerges is that of a distinctive and vibrant community of Muslims with a remarkable capacity for reinvention and adaptation, grounded in a unique theological interpretation of Islam.

What Is a Madrasa?

Shah Ismaʿil zealously favored Shiʿi interpretations of Islam. Sensing
Maybudhi's opposition to his views, the shah decreed that Maybudhi be executed
, another piece of history I came to learn afterward. Often madrasa students refer
to a text ...

Author : Ebrahim Moosa

Release : 2015-04-06

Publisher : UNC Press Books

ISBN : 1469620146

File Size : 55.7 MB

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Taking us inside the world of the madrasa--the most common type of school for religious instruction in the Islamic world--Ebrahim Moosa provides an indispensable resource for anyone seeking to understand orthodox Islam in global affairs. Focusing on postsecondary-level religious institutions in the Indo-Pakistan heartlands, Moosa explains how a madrasa can simultaneously be a place of learning revered by many and an institution feared by many others, especially in a post-9/11 world. Drawing on his own years as a madrasa student in India, Moosa describes in fascinating detail the daily routine for teachers and students today. He shows how classical theological, legal, and Qur'anic texts are taught, and he illuminates the history of ideas and politics behind the madrasa system. Addressing the contemporary political scene in a clear-eyed manner, Moosa introduces us to madrasa leaders who hold diverse and conflicting perspectives on the place of religion in society. Some admit that they face intractable problems and challenges, including militancy; others, Moosa says, hide their heads in the sand and fail to address the crucial issues of the day. Offering practical suggestions to both madrasa leaders and U.S. policymakers for reform and understanding, Moosa demonstrates how madrasas today still embody the highest aspirations and deeply felt needs of traditional Muslims.

Jihad: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Presents a Shiʿi interpretation ofjihad focusing on justice and the struggle for
knowledge and the betterment of the soul. ▻Wadud, Amina. Inside the
GenderJihad: Women's Reform in Islam. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2006.
Written by a ...

Author : Oxford University Press

Release : 2010-05-01

Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN : 9780199804009

File Size : 36.8 MB

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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In Islamic studies, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of the Islamic religion and Muslim cultures. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

Islam, Authoritarianism, and Underdevelopment

This attitude follows the ulema's epistemology, which is based on four
hierarchical sources: the Quran, hadiths (the ... and analogical reasoning (qiyas).
12 Two characteristics of this epistemology discourage new interpretations of
Islam, particularly by Muslim intellectuals. ... The Shii ulema's epistemology is
similar, though for them consensus is less authoritative, and they put more
emphasis on reason.

Author : Ahmet T. Kuru

Release : 2019-07-31

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

ISBN : 1108419097

File Size : 76.64 MB

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Analyzes Muslim countries' contemporary problems, particularly violence, authoritarianism, and underdevelopment, comparing their historical levels of development with Western Europe.

Jadīd Al-Islām

Perhaps the most fundamental feature specific to Shīʻī Islam is its concept and
institution of Imāmate ( Arabic Imāma ) , meaning the “ supreme leadership ” of
the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad . The Shi ' īs ( or Shi ' ites ) ...

Author : Raphael Patai

Release : 1997

Publisher : Wayne State University Press

ISBN : 9780814326527

File Size : 36.25 MB

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This study documents the history, traditions, tales, customs, and institutions of the Jadid al-Islam-"New Muslims."

Islamic Legal Interpretation

some were even collected and published in manuscript or lithograph form.3 The
form and social meaning of these opinions appears not to have differed in Shi'ism
and Sunnism . They were pieces of extended , formal , legal reasoning applied ...

Author : Muhammad Khalid Masud

Release : 2005

Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN : 9780195979114

File Size : 75.78 MB

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Previous ed.: Cambrige, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

The Islamic Threat

Iran's “Islamic'' Revolution As opposition mounted within Iran, Iran's Shii heritage
offered a common set of symbols, a historic identity, and a value ... Thus Shii
Islam, like all religious traditions, was capable of multiple interpretations. In Iran
in ...

Author : John L. Esposito

Release : 1999-10-07

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0199727201

File Size : 61.53 MB

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Are Islam and the West on a collision course? From the Ayatollah Khomeini to Saddam Hussein, the image of Islam as a militant, expansionist, and rabidly anti-American religion has gripped the minds of Western governments and media. But these perceptions, John L. Esposito writes, stem from a long history of mutual distrust, criticism, and condemnation, and are far too simplistic to help us understand one of the most important political issues of our time. In this new edition of The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, Esposito places the challenge of Islam in critical perspective. Exploring the vitality of this religion as a global force and the history of its relations with the West, Esposito demonstrates the diversity of the Islamic resurgence--and the mistakes our analysts make in assuming a hostile, monolithic Islam. This third edition has been expanded to include new material on current affairs in Turkey, Afghanistan, Palestine, and Southeast Asia, as well as a discussion of international terrorism.

Muslim Identities

These developments, associated with manifold interpretations of Islam, are the
subject of the remaining chapters in part II. ... A discussion of these figures can be
found in Husain M. Jafri, Origins and Development of Shiʿa Islam (London: ...

Author : Aaron W. Hughes

Release : 2013-04-09

Publisher : Columbia University Press

ISBN : 0231531923

File Size : 43.1 MB

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Rather than focus solely on theological concerns, this well-rounded introduction takes an expansive view of Islamic ideology, culture, and tradition, sourcing a range of historical, sociological, and literary perspectives. Neither overly critical nor apologetic, this book reflects the rich diversity of Muslim identities across the centuries and counters the unflattering, superficial portrayals of Islam that are shaping public discourse today. Aaron W. Hughes uniquely traces the development of Islam in relation to historical, intellectual, and cultural influences, enriching his narrative with the findings, debates, and methodologies of related disciplines, such as archaeology, history, and Near Eastern studies. Hughes's work challenges the dominance of traditional terms and concepts in religious studies, recasting religion as a set of social and cultural facts imagined, manipulated, and contested by various actors and groups over time. Making extensive use of contemporary identity theory, Hughes rethinks the teaching of Islam and religions in general and helps facilitate a more critical approach to Muslim sources. For readers seeking a non-theological, unbiased, and richly human portrait of Islam, as well as a strong grasp of Islamic study's major issues and debates, this textbook is a productive, progressive alternative to more classic surveys.

Islam

As champions of Sunni orthodoxy, the Ottomans considered the Shii and Sufi
Safavids to be heretics. Several serious ... His descendants were not themselves
prophets, but their interpretations of scripture were authoritative. By contrast, in ...

Author : Tamara Sonn

Release : 2011-09-23

Publisher : John Wiley & Sons

ISBN : 1444358987

File Size : 65.76 MB

Format : PDF

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Reflecting recent global developments, the second edition of this illuminating introduction to Islamic history expands its coverage of the Qur’an, Sufism, and Muslim views on human rights, including the rights of women. An expanded new edition of this concise, illuminating introduction to Islam, written by one of the field’s leading scholars Spans Islamic history from the life of Muhammad and the birth of Islamic ideals, through Islam’s phenomenal geographical expansion and cultural development, to the creation of modern states and its role in today’s global society Features expanded coverage of the Qur’an, Sufism, and Muslim views on human rights, including the rights of women Includes fascinating vignettes of Islamic life, representing mainstream Muslim viewpoints on issues of global concern Explores the complex interrelationships of cultural, political, and ideological developments woven throughout Islamic history, drawing on specific examples including current developments in Pakistan

Who Is Allah?

The mainstream Sunni site islamicity.com ranks thirteenth among all Islamic
websites, while the smaller Shiʿi community ... comes shrouded in either anti-
Islamic rhetoric or in content that seeks to present a homogenized interpretation
of Islam ...

Author : Bruce B. Lawrence

Release : 2015-04-06

Publisher : UNC Press Books

ISBN : 1469620049

File Size : 86.48 MB

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This vivid introduction to the heart of Islam offers a unique approach to understanding Allah, the central focus of Muslim religious expression. Drawing on history, culture, theology, politics, and the media, Bruce B. Lawrence identifies key religious practices by which Allah is revered and remembered, illuminating how the very name of Allah is interwoven into the everyday experience of millions of Muslims. For Muslims, as for adherents of other religions, intentions as well as practices are paramount in one's religious life. Lawrence elucidates how public utterances, together with private pursuits, reflect the emotive, sensory, and intellectual aspirations of the devout. Ranging from the practice of the tongue (speaking) to practices in cyberspace (online religious activities), Lawrence explores how Allah is invoked, defined, remembered, and also debated. While the practice of the heart demonstrates how Allah is remembered in Sufism, the mystical branch of Islam, the practice of the mind examines how theologians and philosophers have defined Allah in numerous contexts, often with conflicting aims. The practice of the ear marks the contemporary period, in which Lawrence locates and then assesses competing calls for jihad, or religious struggle, within the cacophony of an immensely diverse umma, the worldwide Muslim community.

The Ashgate Research Companion to Islamic Law

Robert Gleave† in the ninth century muslim jurists began to conceive of the law
as a coherent body of legal norms ... and interpretation in islamic legal Theory (
2012), scripturalist islam: The history and Doctrines of the Akhbārī shīʿī school ...

Author : Peri Bearman

Release : 2014-08-28

Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN : 1472403711

File Size : 78.22 MB

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This unparalleled Companion provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to Islamic law to all with an interest in this increasingly relevant and developing field. The volume presents classical Islamic law through a historiographical introduction to and analysis of Western scholarship, while key debates about hot-button issues in modern-day circumstances are also addressed. In twenty-one chapters, distinguished authors offer an overview of their particular specialty, reflect on past and current thinking, and point to directions for future research. The Companion is divided into four parts. The first offers an introduction to the history of Islamic law as well as a discussion of how Western scholarship and historiography have evolved over time. The second part delves into the substance of Islamic law. Legal rules for the areas of legal status, family law, socio-economic justice, penal law, constitutional authority, and the law of war are all discussed in this section. Part three examines the adaptation of Islamic law in light of colonialism and the modern nation state as well as the subsequent re-Islamization of national legal systems. The final section presents contemporary debates on the role of Islamic law in areas such as finance, the diaspora, modern governance, and medical ethics, and the volume concludes by questioning the role of Sharia law as a legal authority in the modern context. By outlining the history of Islamic law through a linear study of research, this collection is unique in its examination of past and present scholarship and the lessons we can draw from this for the future. It introduces scholars and students to the challenges posed in the past, to the magnitude of milestones that were achieved in the reinterpretation and revision of established ideas, and ultimately to a thorough conceptual understanding of Islamic law.

Women, Religion and Culture in Iran

An aspect of the development of this orthodoxy was the fact that the Shiʿi
interpretations of the Islamic position on women superimposed itself completely
upon all past customs and traditions. The seclusion of women under Shah Sultan
 ...

Author : Sarah Ansari

Release : 2014-05-01

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1317793390

File Size : 80.45 MB

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Investigates how women, religion and culture have interacted in the context of 19th and 20th century Iran, covering topics as seemingly diverse as the social and cultural history of Persian cuisine, the work and attitudes of 19th century Christian missionaries, the impact of growing female literacy, and the consequences of developments since 1979.

Tafsir: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Astute analysis of a little-known classical work that is particularly alert to the
process by which meaning is created in ... The Ismaili branch of Shiʿi Islam has
not produced classic works of tafsir within the genre as such, but it clearly
enunciates ...

Author : Oxford University Press

Release : 2010-05-01

Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN : 9780199804306

File Size : 48.5 MB

Format : PDF, Mobi

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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In Islamic studies, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Islamic Studies, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of the Islamic religion and Muslim cultures. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

monotheism and reliance on Quran and hadith, rejecting medieval interpretations
of Islam and jurisprudence. ... popular cult of saints, idolatry, and shrine and tomb
visitation, as well as the sacking of Shii shrines in Najaf and Karbala in 1802.

Author : John L. Esposito

Release : 2004-10-21

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0199757267

File Size : 31.40 MB

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Designed for general readers with little or no knowledge of Islam, this superb Oxford Dictionary provides more than 2,000 vividly written, up-to-date, and authoritative entries organized in an easy-to-use, A-to-Z format. The Dictionary focuses primarily on the 19th and 20th centuries, stressing topics of most interest to Westerners. What emerges is a highly informative look at the religious, political, and social spheres of the modern Islamic world. Naturally, readers will find many entries on topics of intense current interest, such as terrorism and the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and al-Qaida, the PLO and HAMAS. But the coverage goes well beyond recent headlines. There are biographical profiles, ranging from Naguib Mahfouz (the Nobel Prize winner from Egypt) to Malcolm X, including political leaders, influential thinkers, poets, scientists, and writers. Other entries cover major political movements, militant groups, and religious sects as well as terms from Islamic law, culture, and religion, key historical events, and important landmarks (such as Mecca and Medina). A series of entries looks at Islam in individual nations, such as Afghanistan, the West Bank and Gaza, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the United States, and there are discussions of Islamic views on such issues as abortion, birth control, the Internet, the Rushdie Affair, and the theory of evolution. Whether we are listening to the evening news, browsing through the op-ed pages, or reading a book on current events, references to Muslims and the Islamic world appear at every turn. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam offers a wealth of information for anyone curious about this burgeoning and increasingly important world religion.

Human Rights in the Muslim World

Then with the help of massive suppression in the seventeenth century , Iran was
transformed into a Shia country . Shii Islam was effectively imposed in Iran
through a process of persecution and doctrinal interpretation . Shah Ismail
imposed ...

Author : Maimul Ahsan Khan

Release : 2003

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 61.77 MB

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So History Doesn't Forget:

The major early doctrinal conflict between Shii and Sunni Islam can be traced to
the differences over: 1) the concept of Caliphate, (the political authority of the
ruler of all Muslim); 2) the interpretation of Islamic doctrine concerning the
concept of ...

Author : Dr. Abdulrhman A Hussein

Release : 2012-01-25

Publisher : AuthorHouse

ISBN : 1467883557

File Size : 80.18 MB

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This book illustrates that the perception of an external threat to the security of Saudi Arabia's national interests is the major factor behind Saudi external alliances. Given its limited national capabilities, the existence of expansionist and revolutionary regimes in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, and the nature of Middle East politics, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has little choice but to adopt a balance of power policy by building alliances with regional and great powers. Although there exists some studies concerned with the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, this is the first comprehensive study that analyzes Saudi foreign policy from an alliance behavior perspective.