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War of Intervention in Angola, Volume 2

As of 1975, the decades long insurgency in Angola appeared to be short of its conclusion.

Author : Adrien Fontanellaz

Release : 2019-04-28

Publisher : [email protected]

ISBN : 9781911628651

File Size : 67.67 MB

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As of mid-1976, the civil war in Angola was seemingly decided: supported by a large contingent of Cuban forces, the MPLA established itself in power in Luanda. Its native competitors, the US-French-Zaire-supported FNLA, and UNITA, supported by China and South Africa, were in tatters. The French and Zaire-supported FLEC - an armed movement for the independence of the oil-rich Cabinda enclave - was in disarray. The last few of their surviving units were either driven out of the country, or forced into hiding in isolated corners of northern and south-eastern Angola. Nevertheless, the war went on. The MPLA's government failed to decisively defeat UNITA, in southern Angola, and then found itself facing a coup attempt from within in May 1977. Crushed in blood, this resulted in thousands being jailed and tortured: many more escaped abroad, where they reinforced the ranks of the battered opposition. The coup prompted the Soviets to attempt increasing their influence with the aim of establishing permanent military bases in the country. While all such overtures were turned down, Angolan operations along the border to what was then the South-West Africa (subsequently Namibia) in October 1980, combined with the increased activity of SWAPO - an insurgency against the South African control of that territory - subsequently Namibia - prompted South Africa to launch another military intervention and resume supporting UNITA. In turn, this prompted not only the Cubans to further increase their military presence, but also the Soviet Union into delivering massive amounts of military aid to the government in Luanda. Angola not only assumed the role of one of the major hot battlefields in the Cold War: its 'civil war' saw a number of major showdowns between diverse belligerents, culminating in the Battle of Cangamba in 1983. Based on extensive research, with help of Angolan and Cuban sources, War of Intervention in Angola, Volume 2, traces the military build-up of the Cuban and Soviet-supported Angolan military, the FAPLA and its combat operations, and those of the Cuban military in Angola, in the period 1976-1983, their capabilities and intentions, and their battlefield performances. The volume is illustrated with over 100 rare photographs, half a dozen maps and 18 color profiles.

A History of the Laws of War: Volume 2

The Customs and Laws of War with Regards to Civilians in Times of Conflict
Alexander Gillespie ... (from the mid1990s until the United Nations intervention),
244 Angola,245 Rwanda,246 Burundi,247 the Democratic Republic of the Congo
,248 ...

Author : Alexander Gillespie

Release : 2011-10-07

Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN : 1847318622

File Size : 81.39 MB

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This unique new work of reference traces the origins of the modern laws of warfare from the earliest times to the present day. Relying on written records from as far back as 2400 BCE, and using sources ranging from the Bible to Security Council Resolutions, the author pieces together the history of a subject which is almost as old as civilisation itself. The author shows that as long as humanity has been waging wars it has also been trying to find ways of legitimising different forms of combatants and ascribing rules to them, protecting civilians who are either inadvertently or intentionally caught up between them, and controlling the use of particular classes of weapons that may be used in times of conflict. Thus it is that this work is divided into three substantial parts: Volume 1 on the laws affecting combatants and captives; Volume 2 on civilians; and Volume 3 on the law of arms control. This second book on civilians examines four different topics. The first topic deals with the targetting of civilians in times of war. This discussion is one which has been largely governed by the developments of technologies which have allowed projectiles to be discharged over ever greater areas, and attempts to prevent their indiscriminate utilisation have struggled to keep pace. The second topic concerns the destruction of the natural environment, with particular regard to the utilisation of starvation as a method of warfare, and unlike the first topic, this one has rarely changed over thousands of years, although contemporary practices are beginning to represent a clear break from tradition. The third topic is concerned with the long-standing problems of civilians under the occupation of opposing military forces, where the practices of genocide, collective punishments and/or reprisals, and rape have occurred. The final topic in this volume is about the theft or destruction of the property of the enemy, in terms of either pillage or the intentional devastation of the cultural property of the opposition. As a work of reference this set of three books is unrivalled, and will be of immense benefit to scholars and practitioners researching and advising on the laws of warfare. It also tells a story which throws fascinating new light on the history of international law and on the history of warfare itself.

Angola

Wilfred Burchett, SouthernAfrica Stands Up: The Revolutions in Angola,
Mozambique, Rhodesia, Namibia and South Africa (New York: ... Marcum,The
Angolan Revolution, Volume 2, 211. ... Ebinger, “External Intervention in Internal
War,” 681.

Author : S. Weigert

Release : 2011-10-24

Publisher : Springer

ISBN : 023033783X

File Size : 46.2 MB

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This study is the first comprehensive assessment of warfare in Angola to cover all three phases of the nation's modern history: the anti-colonial struggle, the Cold War phase, and the post-Cold War era. It also covers, in detail, the final phase of warfare in Angola, culminating in Jonas Savimbi's death and the signing of the Luena Accord

Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set

Operation Zulu, an armored force supported by helicopter gunships that moved
rapidly up the Angolan coast, dislodging and expelling the MPLA army in its
wake. ... Following the public exposure of the South African intervention (
November 22), support for UNITA began to ebb. ... After Angola: The War over
Southern Africa. London: Rex Collings, 1976. Marcum, John A. The Angolan
Revolution, Vol. 2.

Author : Kevin Shillington

Release : 2013-07-04

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1135456690

File Size : 88.9 MB

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Covering the entire continent from Morocco, Libya, and Egypt in the north to the Cape of Good Hope in the south, and the surrounding islands from Cape Verde in the west to Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the east, the Encyclopedia of African History is a new A-Z reference resource on the history of the entire African continent. With entries ranging from the earliest evolution of human beings in Africa to the beginning of the twenty-first century, this comprehensive three volume Encyclopedia is the first reference of this scale and scope. Also includes 99 maps.

History of American Foreign Policy, Volume 2: From 1895

As the Angolan independence movement and ultimately the Portuguese
revolution confounded the tar baby option, ... resigned when Kissinger ignored
his warning that the civil war was an African affair out of control of the major
powers and ... Congress refused to counter this escalation, and it cut off the
existing covert aid when Davis's resignation and leaks made American
intervention a hot public issue.

Author : Jerald A Combs

Release : 2017-07-28

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1315497271

File Size : 57.58 MB

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First Published in 2017. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an Informa company.

An African Volk

2. DFAA, 1/22/1 OS, 19, Angola: Political Situation and Developments, E. M.
Malone, SA Consul-General, Luanda, to the Secretary ... Odd Arne Westad, “
Moscow and the Angolan Crisis, 1974–1976: A New Pattern of Intervention,”
Cold War International History Project Bulletin 8–9 ... SANDFA, Group 3 (vol 2)—
HSI/AMI, Box 637, MI/PLANS/8/1/2, “Waardering oor die Moontlike Gebruik/
Aanwending van ...

Author : Jamie Miller

Release : 2016-09-20

Publisher : Oxford University Press

ISBN : 0190274840

File Size : 38.45 MB

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The demise of apartheid was one of the great achievements of postwar history, sought after and celebrated by a progressive global community. Looking at these events from the other side, An African Volk explores how the apartheid state strove to maintain power as the world of white empire gave way to a post-colonial environment that repudiated racial hierarchy. Drawing upon archival research across Southern Africa and beyond, as well as interviews with leaders of the apartheid order, Jamie Miller shows how the white power structure attempted to turn the new political climate to its advantage. Instead of simply resisting decolonization and African nationalism in the name of white supremacy, the regime looked to co-opt and invert the norms of the new global era to promote a fresh ideological basis for its rule. It adapted discourses of nativist identity, African anti-colonialism, economic development, anti-communism, and state sovereignty to rearticulate what it meant to be African. An African Volk details both the global and local repercussions. At the dawn of the 1970s, the apartheid state reached out eagerly to independent Africa in an effort to reject the mantle of colonialism and redefine the white polity as a full part of the post-colonial world. This outreach both reflected and fuelled heated debates within white society, exposing a deeply divided polity in the midst of profound economic, cultural, and social change. Situated at the nexus of African, decolonization, and Cold War history, An African Volk takes readers into the corridors of white power to detail the apartheid regime's campaign to break out of isolation and secure global acceptance.

The Arc of Socialist Revolutions

Angola to Afghanistan Suzanne Jolicoeur Katsikas. 9. Marcum , Volume 2 , pp .
179–183 ; quote ... Charles Ebinger , “ External Intervention in Internal War : The
Politics and Diplomacy of the Angolan Civil War , ” Orbis 20 , no . 3 ( Fall 1976 ) ...

Author : Suzanne Jolicoeur Katsikas

Release : 1982

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 30.38 MB

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The Cuban Intervention in Angola, 1965-1991

... culmination of years of military and civilian discontent in Portugal.2 The long
and frustrating wars in Angola, Guiné and Mozambique had ... By 1973, fielding
nearly 150,000 troops in three war zones (proportionally five times the American
commitment in Vietnam), the ... The MFA quickly expanded its grip over the
armed forces and, following the publication of Spínola's book in February 1974,
Caetano ...

Author : Edward George

Release : 2004-11-23

Publisher : Routledge

ISBN : 1134269323

File Size : 51.11 MB

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A new examination of why Cuba, a Caribbean country, sent half a million of its citizens to fight in Angola in Africa, and how a short-term intervention escalated into a lengthy war of intervention. It clearly details how in January 1965 Cuba formed an alliance with the Angolan MPLA which evolved into the flagship of its global 'internationalist' mission, spawning the military intervention of November 1975 culminating in Cuba's spurious 'victory' at Cuito Cuanavale and Cuba's fifteen-year occupation of Angola. Drawing on interviews with leading protagonists, first-hand accounts and archive material from Cuba, Angola and South Africa, this new book dispels the myths of the Cuban intervention, revealing that Havana's decision to intervene was not so much an heroic gesture of solidarity, but rather a last-ditch gamble to avert disaster. By examining Cuba's role in the Angolan War in a global context, this book demonstrates how the interaction between the many players in Angola shaped and affected Cuba's intervention as it headed towards its controversial conclusion.

Angola and the Politics of Intervention

From Local Bush War to Chronic Crisis in Southern Africa Daniel Spikes. - , ed .
Zaire : A ... The Angolan War : A Study in Soviet Policy in the Third World .
Boulder , Colo . ... Volume 2 ; Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare . Cambridge :
MIT ...

Author : Daniel Spikes

Release : 1993

Publisher : McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub

ISBN :

File Size : 82.80 MB

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On November 10, 1975, Portugal granted independence to Angola. As one of the last European colonies in Africa to be given up, Angola serves as a case study of the problems and possibilities facing nations artificially conceived and ill prepared for independence. Using numerous Angolan, Portuguese, U.S., Soviet, Chinese, and African sources, the historical impact of tribal conflicts, European imperialism, and competing superpower interests are fully examined.

The Red Orchestra: The case of Africa

See John Marcum , The Angolan Revolution , vol . 2 ( Cambridge , Mass .: MIT
Press , 1978 ) , p . 437 . 10. See Charles Ebinger , “ External Intervention in
Internal War : The Politics and Diplomacy of the Angolan Civil War , ” Orbis ( Fall
1976 ) ...

Author : Dennis L. Bark

Release : 1986

Publisher : Hoover Inst Press

ISBN : 9780817987428

File Size : 51.28 MB

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Détente and Confrontation

Another basic work is John A . Marcum , The Angolan Revolution , vol . 2 : Exile
Politics and Guerrilla Warfare ( 1962 - 1976 ) ( Cambridge , Mass . : MIT Press ,
1978 ) , pp . 241 - 81 . Also very useful is Charles K . Ebinger , Foreign
Intervention in Civil War : The Politics and Diplomacy of the Angolan Conflict (
Boulder , Colo .

Author : Raymond L. Garthoff

Release : 1985

Publisher : Washington, D.C. : Brookings Institution

ISBN : 9780815730446

File Size : 71.61 MB

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In this revised edition of the acclaimed 1985 volume, newly declassified secret Russian as well as American materials are used as it reexamines the historical development of American-Soviet relations from 1969 through 1980. The book takes into account both the broader context of world politics and internal political considerations and developments, and examines these developments as experienced by both sides. Copyright © Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.

Military Intervention in Civil Wars

R . E . Bissell , ' Soviet Use of Proxies in the Third World : The Case of Yemen ' in
Soviet Studies , vol . ... 70 aux années 80 ' in International Journal , vol . 37 , 1982
: 2 , pp . 285 – 306 ; J . A . Marcum , The Angolan Revolution . Volume II .

Author : Bertil Dunér

Release : 1985

Publisher : Gower Publishing Company, Limited

ISBN :

File Size : 49.88 MB

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The USSR and the Soviet Bloc

Joumal of Southem African Affairs , vol . 2 , no . 3 , 1977. p . 275-293 . The
Angolan liberation war was fought by three liberating factions . The conflict
among these prompted the intervention of the Soviet Union , the United States ,
China and ...

Author : Lydia Eve Andor

Release : 1987

Publisher : South African Institute of International Affairs Jan Smuts House

ISBN :

File Size : 66.1 MB

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Searchlight South Africa

and Tony Hodges ( 1976 ) , After Angola : The War Over Southern Africa , Rex
Collings . - - - ( 1976b : ) , ' A Study of Foreign Intervention in Angola ' , in Legum
and Hodges . Marcum , John ( 1978 ) , The Angolan Revolution , Volume 2 : Exile
 ...

Author :

Release : 1988

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 31.93 MB

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African Nemesis

Colonial wars Angola Marcum ' s two - volume work provides an exhaustive
background to the Angolan war : Marcum , J The Angolan Revolution : Vol 1 , The
Anatomy of an Explosion ( 1950 - 1962 ) , Vol 2 , Exile and Guerrilla Warfare (
1962 - 1976 ) , MIT , Cambridge , 1969 , 1978 . See also ... Hallett , R “ The South
African Intervention in Angola , 1975 - 76 , ” African Affairs , 77 : 308 , July 1978 .

Author : Paul L. Moorcraft

Release : 1990

Publisher : Brassey's

ISBN :

File Size : 21.24 MB

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A detailed study of the military and political nexus throughout southern Africa and a consideration of whether the war in South Africa will lead to revolution. Moorcraft, a journalist and film-maker who spent eleven years in the area, analyzes the forces at work and projects various scenarios for the future of the country. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

The Cold War in the Third World and the Collapse of Détente in the 1970s

George W. Breslauer has an excellent survey of recent literature on Soviet
interventions in “Ideology and Learning in ... Afanasenko to M0, 8 June 1974,
TsKhSD, f. 5, op. 67, d. 758, ll. 7881. 19 Marcum, Angolan Revolution, vol. 2,
24548.

Author :

Release : 1996

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 35.5 MB

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Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II: Palestine-Zimbabwe

The Angolan Revolution : Volume 2 : Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare . ...
Nolutshungu , Sam C . Limits of Anarchy : Intervention and State Formation in
Chad . ... Fighting for the Rain Forest : War , Youth and Resources in Sierra
Leone .

Author :

Release : 1999

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 65.47 MB

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Discusses the roots of war, various alliances and summit meetings meant to forestall conflict, and the background and events connected with numerous specific conflicts in the second half of the twentieth century.

American Adventurism Abroad

Invasions, Interventions, and Regime Changes Since World War II Michael J.
Sullivan ... The Eagle and the Bear in Angola , ” Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science , 489 : 123–32 . ... The Angolan Revolution : Vol .
2 ...

Author : Michael J. Sullivan

Release : 2008

Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN :

File Size : 32.31 MB

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Now in its second edition, American Adventurism Abroad traces US foreign policy from the late 1940s through the past six years of America’s 'war on terror,' and examines the impact of its repeated militaristic meddling into developing nations. Examines 34 cases of overseas US militaristic meddling, drawn from eleven presidencies and five geographic regions Provides not only understanding of the overseas interventions, but also a framework with which to interpret anticipated future American adventures Describes two recent dramatic non-terrorist-related interventions occurring in the Western Hemisphere—in Venezuela and Haiti and two terrorist-related interventions in Afghanistan (confirmed) and Iraq (alleged)

History Behind the Headlines

Since 1993 the war has raged off and on , despite an international environment
more favorable to the MPLA government than ... Fearing that the Soviet Union
would exploit the chaos that followed Congolese independence in 1960 , the
United States had supported United Nations intervention to maintain ... In
HISTORY BEHIND THE HEADLINES , VOLUME 2 15 ANGOLA : CIVIL WAR AND
DIAMONDS.

Author :

Release : 2001

Publisher :

ISBN :

File Size : 47.40 MB

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Provides background information on long-term ethnic, religious, political, territorial and economic conflicts between nations today.

Armament, Development, Human Rights, Disarmament

Alvin Z . Rubinstein , Soviet Foreign Policy Since World War II : Imperial and
Global , Boston , Mass . , Little , Brown and Co . , 1981 . - Major Lyman B ... Carl G
. Jacobsen , « Angola and the Evolution of Soviet Theory and Capability for
Intervention in Distant Areas » , pp . 351 - 364 , in Soviet Armed Forces Review
Annual , Ed . David R . Jones , volume 2 , Academic International Press , 1978 . -
Arthur Jay ...

Author : Georges Fischer

Release : 1985

Publisher :

ISBN : 9782903145071

File Size : 65.25 MB

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